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Disperse Dyes

Disperse Dyes

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Published by: syed asim najam on May 30, 2010
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Disperse Dye
Disperse dye is originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate.They are substantially water insoluble. The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent then sold as a paste or spray dried and sold asa powder. They can also be used to dye nylon, triacetate, polyester andacrylic fibres. In some cases a dyeing temperature of 130 deg C is requiredand a pressurized dyebath is used. The very fine particle size gives a largesurface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fibre. The dyeingrate can be significantly influenced by the choice of dispersing agent usedduring the grinding.Disperse dyes have low solubility in water, but they can interact with the polyester chains by forming dispersed particles. Their main use is the dyeingof polyesters, and they find minor use dyeing cellulose acetates and polyamides. The general structure of disperse dyes is small, planar and non-ionic, with attached polar functional groups like -NO2 and -CN. The shapemakes it easier for the dye to slide between the tightly-packed polymer chains, and the polar groups improve the water solubility, improve thedipolar bonding between dye and polymer and affect the colour of the dye.However, their small size means that disperse dyes are quite volatile, andtend to sublime out of the polymer at sufficiently high temperatures.The dye is generally applied under pressure, at temperatures of about 130oC.At this temperature, thermal agitation causes the polymer's structure to become looser and less crystalline, opening gaps for the dye molecules toenter. The interactions between dye and polymer are thought to be Van-der-Waals and dipole forces.The volatility of the dye can cause loss of colour density, and staining of other materials at high temperatures. This can be counteracted by usinglarger molecules or making the dye more polar (or both). This has adrawback, however, in that this new larger, more polar molecule will needmore extreme forcing conditions to dye the polymer2.
The most important class is the azo class. This class of azo disperse dyesmay be further sub-divided into four groups, the most numerous of which isthe aminoazobenzene class. This class of dye can be altered as mentioned before, to produce bathochromic shifts. A range of heterocyclicaminoazobenzene dyes are also available. These give bright dyes, and are bathochromically shifted to give blues. The third class of disperse dye is based on heterocyclic coupling components, which produce bright yellowdyes. The fourth class are disazo dyes. These tend to be quite simple instructure. Other than these, there are disperse dyes of the carbonyl class, anda few from the nitro and polymethine classes.
Common and Generic Names for Disperse Dyes
Colour Index Names for PROSperse Disperse Dyes
PRO chem #NameColour Index Name
D118Bright Yellow Disperse Yellow 218D225Clear OrangeDisperse Orange 25D333Fuchsia Disperse Violet 33D350Flame Scarlet Disperse Red 325D360Bright Red Disperse Red 60D426Turquoise Disperse Blue 26D450National Blue Disperse Blue C-4RA (manufacturer's mix?)D459Bright Blue Disperse Blue 56D460Deep Navy Disperse Navy 35D650Cool Black Disperse Black C-MDA (manufacturer's mix?)D770Meadow In House MixD773Sage In House MixD880Iris In House MixD885Lilac In House MixD125Buttercup In House Mix
APPLICATION OF DISPERSE DYES:Dyeing Polyester with Disperse Dyes
Polyester requires the use of disperse dyes. Other types of dyes leave thecolor of polyester almost entirely unchanged. While novices happily chargeinto dyeing with acid dyes (for wool or nylon) and fiber reactive dyes (for cotton and rayon), often with excellent results, the immersion dyeing of  polyester is a different story.However, disperse dye can be used by even young children to make designson paper, which can then be transferred to polyester fabric, or other synthetics, with a hot iron. The possibilities are endless, using fabriccrayons, rubber stamps, painting, and even screen printing.
Stamp Pad Ink 
Disperse dye can be applied to paper with rubber stamps, and then ironed onto polyester, just like the crayons. You can use special, large-scale fabricstamps to apply other dyes to fabric, but only disperse dyes allow such finelines that almost any rubber stamp designed for use on paper will work, if your fabric is smooth enough. Look for a product called"Heat Set Ink"atcompanies that sell rubber stamping supplies. Caroline Dahl's wonderful book 
gives source information for this material, inaddition to many project ideas and beautiful inspiring photographs of worksmade with disperse dye on polyester.
Fastness to light is generally quite good, while fastness to washing is highlydependent on the fibre. In particular, in polyamides and acrylics they areused mostly for pastel shades because in dark shades they have limitedbuild-up properties and poor wash fastness.

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Hi, any references for this article? thanks.
Yakubu Yusuf Lams added this note
correction - NO2 is subscript 2, structures of C.I Disperse Blue 56, C.I Disperse Red 127 and C.I Violet 26 should have been provided. The pages of the publication also should have been provided for proper referncing thank you. Dr. Yusuf observation
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