To recognize the composition of fabrics by the burning test ,the sample of fiber, yarnof fabric should be moved slowly towards a small flame and the reaction to heatcarefully observed .One end of the sample should be put directly into flame todetermine its burning rate and characteristics. The burning odour should be notedand the characteristics of the ash such as amount, form, hardness and color shouldbe examined.
IDENTIFICATION OF FIBRES THROUGH BURNING TEST
When ignited it burns with a steady flame and smells like burning leaves. Theash left is easily crumbled. Small samples of burning cotton can be blown out as youwould a candle.
Nylon melts and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted fibre. If you can keep the flame on the melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic.
Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash canbond quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester isblack with a sweetish smell. The extinguished ash is hard.
It is a regenerated cellulose fibre which is almost pure cellulose. Rayon burnsrapidly and leaves only a slight ash. The burning smell is close to burning leaves.
It is a protein fibre and usually burns readily, not necessarily with a steadyflame, and smells like burning hair. The ash is easily crumbled. Silk samples are notas easily extinguished as cotton or linen.
It is also a protein fibre but is harder to ignite than silk as the individual "hair"fibres are shorter than silk and the weave of the fabrics is generally looser than withsilk. The flame is steady but more difficult to keep burning. The smell of burning woolis like burning hair.
There are certain technical tests performed for identifying various fibers. These testsrequire high technology laboratory equipment and are much more reliable than thenon technical fibre tests. Technical tests require high skilled personnel and technicalknow how of handling chemicals and their accurate analysis. These tests are veryvaluable for those fabrics that are a blend of different yarns and also have certainspecial properties including flame retardance etc.
TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEST
Microscopic test is a technical test that involves identifying the fabric withthe help of a microscope with a magnification of minimum 100 powers. The test caneasily distinguish between fibers. The test identifies the natural fibers more easily ascompared to man made ones. Synthetic fibers are very similar in appearance and theincrease in the number of varieties makes it a little tough to distinguish the fiberseven under a microscope.