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Identifiaction of Fibers

Identifiaction of Fibers

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Published by syed asim najam
BURNING TEST
To recognize the composition of fabrics by the burning test ,the sample of fiber, yarn of fabric should be moved slowly towards a small flame and the reaction to heat carefully observed .One end of the sample should be put directly into flame to determine its burning rate and characteristics. The burning odour should be noted and the characteristics of the ash such as amount, form, hardness and color should be examined.

IDENTIFICATION OF FIBRES THROUGH BURNING TEST
Cotton When igni
BURNING TEST
To recognize the composition of fabrics by the burning test ,the sample of fiber, yarn of fabric should be moved slowly towards a small flame and the reaction to heat carefully observed .One end of the sample should be put directly into flame to determine its burning rate and characteristics. The burning odour should be noted and the characteristics of the ash such as amount, form, hardness and color should be examined.

IDENTIFICATION OF FIBRES THROUGH BURNING TEST
Cotton When igni

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Published by: syed asim najam on May 30, 2010
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05/06/2014

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BURNING TEST
 To recognize the composition of fabrics by the burning test ,the sample of fiber, yarnof fabric should be moved slowly towards a small flame and the reaction to heatcarefully observed .One end of the sample should be put directly into flame todetermine its burning rate and characteristics. The burning odour should be notedand the characteristics of the ash such as amount, form, hardness and color shouldbe examined.
IDENTIFICATION OF FIBRES THROUGH BURNING TEST
Cotton
When ignited it burns with a steady flame and smells like burning leaves. Theash left is easily crumbled. Small samples of burning cotton can be blown out as youwould a candle.
Nylon
Nylon melts and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted fibre. If you can keep the flame on the melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic.
Polyester
Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash canbond quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester isblack with a sweetish smell. The extinguished ash is hard.
Rayon
It is a regenerated cellulose fibre which is almost pure cellulose. Rayon burnsrapidly and leaves only a slight ash. The burning smell is close to burning leaves.
Silk 
It is a protein fibre and usually burns readily, not necessarily with a steadyflame, and smells like burning hair. The ash is easily crumbled. Silk samples are notas easily extinguished as cotton or linen.
Wool
It is also a protein fibre but is harder to ignite than silk as the individual "hair"fibres are shorter than silk and the weave of the fabrics is generally looser than withsilk. The flame is steady but more difficult to keep burning. The smell of burning woolis like burning hair.
TECHNICAL TESTS
 There are certain technical tests performed for identifying various fibers. These testsrequire high technology laboratory equipment and are much more reliable than thenon technical fibre tests. Technical tests require high skilled personnel and technicalknow how of handling chemicals and their accurate analysis. These tests are veryvaluable for those fabrics that are a blend of different yarns and also have certainspecial properties including flame retardance etc.
TYPES OF TECHNICAL TEST
Microscopic test
Chemical test
MICROSCOPIC TEST
Microscopic test is a technical test that involves identifying the fabric withthe help of a microscope with a magnification of minimum 100 powers. The test caneasily distinguish between fibers. The test identifies the natural fibers more easily ascompared to man made ones. Synthetic fibers are very similar in appearance and theincrease in the number of varieties makes it a little tough to distinguish the fiberseven under a microscope.
MICROSCOPIC TEST:
COTTON:
 
It is a single elongated cell. Under the microscope, it resembles a collapsed, spirallytwisted tube with a rough surface. The thin cell wall of the fiber has from 200 to 400convolutions per inch.
WOOL:
Under the microscope , wool’s cross section shows three layers- epidermis, cortexand the medulla.
SILK:
It appears somewhat elliptical and triangular in cross section when we see under themicroscope. It is composed of fibroin, consisting of two filaments, called brin which isheld together by sericin.
RAYONS:
Rayon fibers have a glasslike luster under the microscope and appear to have auniform diameter when viewed longitudinally.
NYLON:
 The basic microscopic appearance is generally fine, round, smooth, and translucent.It is also produced in multilobal cross-sectional types.

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