Now-a-days, multi-mega pixel cameras are availablefor a wide range of applications including digital still cameras,camcorders, camera phones and video surveillance equipment. Often,the difference between two digital cameras can be measured in morethan just the number of pixels each captures. Now, the imageprocessing pipeline plays a key role in the overall image quality sincethe increasing complexity with image processing is required by acorresponding increase in image resolution. It’s possible to optimizeeach of the image-processing pipeline’s multiple stages to controlimage and video quality, while continuing to minimize complexity inorder to accommodate diverse user preferences. The integrated,hardware-based image-processing pipeline provides the performanceas well as the flexibility required to ensure that the highest qualityimages are produced for various applications.
SoC image processor, MIPS, fine tuning, OECF(Optical electrical conversion Function), RGB, CFA interpolation.
HEimage-processing pipeline performs the baseline andenhanced image processing, which takes the raw dataproduced by a camera sensor and generates the digitalimage that will then be viewed by the user or undergo furtherprocessing before being saved to nonvolatile memory. Thispipeline is a series of specialized algorithms that adjusts imagedata in real-time and is often implemented as an integratedcomponent of a system-on-chip (SoC) image processor. Withan image pipeline implemented in hardware, front-end imageprocessing can be completed without placing any processingburden on the main application processor. This allows thecycles to encode and perform advanced processingfunctionalities such as video analytics including objectrecognition and object tracking. On the other hand, quality hasno standard metric and different applications approach qualityin different ways, since the same camera can even be used in avariety of ways. A digital still camera needs to be able to takequality pictures in various lighting scenarios, such as indoors,in bright sunlight and in relative darkness. In order tomaximize quality for these scenarios, the image processingpipeline needs to be readily flexible and configurable toprovide the highest quality for each individual picture.In this paper, the general idea of image pipeline ispresented. Tuning the pipeline, noise reduction, contrast
Jakaria Ahmad is with the Metropolitan University, Sylhet-3100,Bangladesh (Phone: +8801728375804; e-mail: email@example.com).Md. Mustafijur Rahman Faysal is with Metropolitan University, on,Sylhet-3100, Bangladesh. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
enhancement and some other major topics are also coveredhere.II.
The image-processing pipeline is designed to exploit theparallel nature of image-processing algorithms and enable acamera to process multiple pictures simultaneously whilemaximizing final image quality. Additionally, each stage inthe pipeline begins processing as soon as image data isavailable so the entire image does not have to be receivedfrom the previous sensor or stage before processing is started.This results in an extremely efficient pipeline withdeterministic performance that increases the speed with whichimages can be processed, and therefore the rate at whichpictures can be taken by users.Performance, however, is only one factor that influencesoverall camera quality. There are some technologies which areflexible enough to specifically tune individual stages to matchthe particular sensor and lens combination of a camera.Additionally, sensor/lens combinations can be tuned across awide range of operating conditions under which the cameramight be used.Taking a hardware-based, configurable approachguarantees performance and flexibility. Manyimplementations (ASIC) provide excellent performance andlow cost, but their fixed nature fails to achieve the best qualitypossible under a wide range of operating conditions and alsolimits their ability to adapt to multiple applications. On theother hand, while software-based approaches provide therequired flexibility, they require too many MIPS on the mainapplication processor and consume too much power.As front-end image processing is fairly well-defined, thealgorithms involved are well suited to a configurableapproach. This even includes those stages which tend to beproprietary between vendors, such as CFA interpolation.Through a configurable approach, overall image quality canbe maximized by adjusting specific parameters at eachpipeline stage.Getting the most out of the image-processing pipeline is aprocess of fine tuning each pipeline stage for every sensor andlens combination. We know, most digital cameras offer user-selectable modes to adjust the camera for cloudy, sunny ornight time lighting. Tuning the image-processing pipeline foreach of these modes enables users to assist the camera inachieving the best image quality. Again a camera canautomatically evaluate current lighting conditions and makean intelligent selection between the available modes tomaximize the quality of the particular image being captured.
Image-Processing Pipelinefor Highest Quality Images
Jakaria Ahmad, Md. Mustafijur Rahman Faysal
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 59 2009216