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Power Systems

Power Systems

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Published by: nancypapa625 on Jun 01, 2010
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Power Transformer
INTRODUCTIONTransformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra highvoltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers.With this tool in hands it has become possible to harness the energy resources at far off places from the load centers and connect the same through long extra high voltagetransmission lines working on high efficiencies. At that, it may be said to be thesimplest equipment with no motive parts. Nevertheless it has its own problemsassociated with insulation, dimensions and weights because of demands for ever rising voltages and capacities.In its simplest form a Transformer consists of a laminated iron core about which arewound two or more sets of windings. Voltage is applied to one set of windings, calledthe primary, which builds up a magnetic flux through the iron. This flux induces acounter electromotive force in the primary winding thereby limiting the current drawnfrom the supply. This is called the no load current and consists of two components-one in phase with the voltage which accounts for the iron losses due to eddy currentsand hysteresis, and the other 90° behind the voltage which magnetizes the core.This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load isconnected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces ademagnetising effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more currentfrom the supply so that
= I
Where Ip and Np are the current and number of turns in the primary while IS and NSare the current and number of turns in the secondary respectively. The ratio of turns inthe primary and secondary windings depends on the ratio of voltages on the Primaryand secondary sides. The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high gradesilicon or other sheet steel which are insulated from each other by varnish or througha coating of iron oxide. The core can be constructed in different ways relative to thewindings.155
CONSTRUCTION1- Transformer Core
Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a lowreluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary.Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the core typeFig (1) core typeThe core of shell type is shown Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded bythe iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. Thisarrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuitconditions.156
In actual construction there are Variations from This simple construction but these can be designedWith such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.Fig (2) shell typeFig.(3) Single phase Transformer Fig. (4) Single phase Transformer .157

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