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Alzola+Harrell Hmisc Design Intro

Alzola+Harrell Hmisc Design Intro

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An Introduction to S andThe Hmisc and Design Libraries
Carlos Alzola, MSStatistical Consultant401 Glyndon Street SEVienna, Va 22180
Frank Harrell, PhDProfessor of BiostatisticsDepartment of BiostatisticsVanderbilt University School of MedicineS-2323 Medical Center NorthNashville, Tn 37232
September 24, 2006
 
ii
Updates to this document may be obtained from
.
 
Contents
,
R
, and Source References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1
R
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2 Starting S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.1 UNIX/Linux. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41.2.2 Windows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.3 Commands vs. GUIs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.4 Basic S Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.5 Methods for Entering and Saving S Commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.5.1 Specifying System File Names in S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.6 Differences Between S and SAS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.7 A Comparison of UNIX/Linux and Windows for Running S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181.8 System Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191.9 Some Useful System Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1 Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.2 Getting Help. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.3 Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292.4 Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.4.1 Numeric, Character and Logical Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312.4.2 Missing Values and Logical Comparisons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322.4.3 Subscripts and Index Vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332.5 Matrices, Lists and Data Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.5.1 Matrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342.5.2 Lists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362.5.3 Data Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382.6 Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392.6.1 The Class Attribute and Factor Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.6.2 Summary of Basic Object Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422.7 When to Quote Constants and Object Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432.8 Function Libraries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442.9 The Hmisc Library. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452.10 Installing Add–on Libraries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51iii

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