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Operations Research

Operations Research

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Published by Yash koradia
solved 2010 spring
solved 2010 spring

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Published by: Yash koradia on Jun 02, 2010
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OPERATIONS RESEARCH
Describe in details the different scopes of application of Operations Research.Ans:- Where ever there is any problem, simple or complicated, operation research techniques maybe applied to find the best solution. Examples of applications in which operations research iscurrently used include:Operation research is used in defense operations. Right from the beginning of World War two,operation research has widely been used in defense systems. Through various departments inmodern armies like air force, navy and army, in various activities of administration, intelligence,training and supply, operation research techniques are now widely employed. The applications of modern war fare techniques in each of the components of military organizations require expertiseknowledge in respective fields. Each of these components works to drive maximum gains from itsoperation and there is always a possibility that the strategy beneficial to one component may havean adverse effect on the other. For example, Operations research doubled the success rate of aerialattacks on submarines by recommending a shallower detonation setting on thedepth charges being dropped by aircraft, it also doubled the on-target bomb rate of B-29sbombing Japanfrom the Marianas Islandsby increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours.Operation research is used in industry. The modern systems in production are so complex that theoptimum point of operation in its various components cannot be intuitively judged by an individual. The business environment is ever changing and any decision useful at one time may not be sogood a time later. There is therefore, need to always check and validate decisions continually,against the situation. Due to division of labor, each department must ensure efficiency and this canonly be achieved by employing operation research techniques. For example, the productiondepartment ensures maximum out put with minimum in put, whilst the marketing departmentensures maximum sales returns while minimizing the cost per unit sale. Operation research helpsin designing the layout of afactoryfor efficient flow of materials.Operation research is also employed during the planning process. In modern times it has becomenecessary for every government to have careful planning, for economic development of thecountry. Operation research techniques can be fruitfully applied to maximize the per capita income,with minimum sacrifice and time. A government can thus use various operation researchtechniques for framing future economic and social policies. This is particularly true withgovernments which use extensively evidence-based policy.In agriculture, various operation research techniques are also employed. Due to populationexplosion, there is need to maximize agricultural out put to cater for the ever increasingpopulation. But this can only be achieved if the courses of action taken take into account variousrestrictions prescribed in order to ensure improved productivity.In hospitals operation research is equally relevant. The various methods here are used to solvewaiting problems in out-patient departments of big hospitals. The administrative problems of hospital organization can also be solved by operation research techniques.In transport, operation research is widely employed. Different techniques are applied to regulatethe arrival of trains and processing times, minimize the passengers waiting time and reducecongestion, formulate suitable transportation policy, reducing the costs and time of trans-shipment.Other examples include; road traffic management and one way street allocations i.e. allocation
 
problems, determining the routes of school buses (or city buses) so that as few buses are neededas possible.In research and development, operation research helps in control of projects, production planning,identifying those processes in a complex project which affect the overall duration of the project andblending of raw materials in oil refineries determining optimal prices, in many retail and B2Bsettings, within the disciplines of pricing science.It is also employed in constructing of telecommunications networkat low cost while stillguaranteeingquality of serviceorQuality of Experienceif particular connections become very busy or get damaged in the connection process.It helps in globalizing operations processes in order to take advantage of cheaper materials, labor,land or other productivity inputs.2. What do you understand by Linear Programming Problem? What are the requirements of L.P.P.?What are the basic assumptions of L.P.P.?Ans:- The Linear Programming Problem (LPP) is a class of mathematical programming in which thefunctions representing the objectives and the constraints are linear. Here, by optimization, wemean either to maximize or minimize the objective functions. The general linear programmingmodel is usually defined as follows:Maximize or Minimize
 Z = c1 x1 + c2 x 2 + - - - - + cn x n
subject to the constraints,Where
cj, bi and aij (i = 1, 2, 3, ….. m, j = 1, 2, 3 ——- n)
are constants determined from thetechnology of the problem and
 xj (j = 1, 2, 3 —- n)
are the decision variables. Here ~ is either £(less than), ³ (greater than) or = (equal). Note that, in terms of the above formulation thecoefficient
cj, aej, bj
are interpreted physically as follows. If 
bi
is the available amount of resources
i,
where
aij
is theamount of resource
i
, that must be allocated to each unit of activity
 j
, the “worth” per unit of activity is equal to
cj
.
 
Requirements of L.P.P.i. Decisions variables and their relationshipii. Well defined objective functioniii. Existence of alternative courses of actioniv. Non-negative conditions on decision variables.
 
Basic assumptions of L.P.P1
. Liniarity 
: Both objective function and constraints must be expressed as linear inequalities.2. Deterministic: All coefficient of decision variables in the objective and constraints expressionsshould be known and finite.3. Additivity: The value of objective function for the given values of decision variables and the totalsum of resources used, must be equal to sum of the contributions earned from each decisionvariable and the sum of resources used by decision variables respectively.4. Divisibility: The solution of decision variables and resources can be any non-negative valuesincluding fractions.3. Describe the different steps needed to solve a problem by simplex method.Ans:- The Simplex Method has its own deficiencies. For example, it requires that all variables benon-negative (
0); also, all other constraints must be in
form with non-negative right-hand-side(RHS) values. The steps needed to solve a problem by simplex include the following;Convert the LP to the following form:Convert the minimization problem into a maximization one (by multiplying the objective function by(-1).All variables must be non-negative.All RHS values must be non-negative (multiply both sides by -1, if needed).All constraints must be in form (except the non-negativity conditions). No strictly equality orconstraints are allowed.If this condition cannot be satisfied, then use the Initialization of the Simplex Method: Artificial-Free.Convert all constraints to equalities by adding a different slack variable for each one of them.Construct the initial simplex tableau with all slack variables in the BVS. The last row in the tablecontains the coefficient of the objective function (row Cj).Determine whether the current tableau is optimal. That is:If all RHS values are non-negative (called, the feasibility condition)If all elements of the last row, that is Cj row, are non-positive (called, the optimality condition).If the answers to both of these two questions are yes, then stop. The current tableau contains anoptimal solution. Otherwise, go to the next step.If the current BVS is not optimal, determine, which non basic variable should become a basicvariable and, which basic variable should become a non basic variable. To find the new BVS withthe better objective function value, perform the following tasks:Identify the entering variable: The entering variable is the one with the largest positive Cj value (Incase of a tie, we select the variable that corresponds to the leftmost of the columns).

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