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Grade 11 Summary

Grade 11 Summary

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Published by: samuwarna on Jun 02, 2010
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Information and Communication Technology
Data can be processed in many ways as follows.
Arithmetical processes. Organizing – Storing, Indexing., Statistical processes.
Information is obtained by processing data in a meaningful way.
Information has nine characteristics.
There are six factors that improve the quality of information.
Information is used in day – to – day routine work, increasing our knowledge and planning,forecasting.
E.g. Data concerning. An employeeEmployee number NameData of employmentDepartmentJob titleSalaryData exists in the following forms.1.Text (read & write)Digits (numerical)[0...9]Letters (Alphabetical)[a..z, A..Z]Punctuation marks[. , : : etc.]Special tokens[$ # @ ^ * ! Space etc]Control characters.2.Audio- Tones and other sounds, voice3.Imaging- Dots, Lines, Circles, rectangles, diagrams, images,pictures.
Classification of data
Data can be categorized into two basic forms:1.Data that cannot be expressed numericallye.g. Colour, shape, sound, degree of health.Data that can be expressed numerically are either discrete or continuous.
Nature of Data.
Data can be Collected and stored.1.Retrieved from a storage medium. (2.)Communicated.(3).Processed.
Data Processing
A set of numerical data can be processed in many ways. Some of these are:1.Arithmetical Process.2.Organizing Storing, Indexing.3.Statistical Processes.
Manual Process and Technological Process
Data Processing can be done in two ways: Manual and Technological.When compared to manual processing, technological processing is extremely fast, accurate andmore reliable. Technology thus allows the highest value for information by giving rise to the fieldof Information technology.
Relevance of Information
Information must have a purpose and so, it must be available to someone who can use it. Therelevance of information varies from person to person. For an average person, the fifth root of 100 may mean nothing, but it may be very useful to a scientist or a technologist.
Characteristics of Information.
Information1.is meaningful2.is a surprise element3.is an action4.is an action motivato5.confirms and refreshes previous knowledge6.is considered an economic resource, somewhat on par with other resources such aslabor, material, and capital.7.is an economic commodity which helps to stimulate the worldwide growth of a newsegment of national economics – the information service sector.8.can only be shared in transactions and not exchanged.9.is relative.
Factors that improve the quality of information
1.Relevance2.Completeness3.Accuracy4.Clarity5.Timeliness6.Make of Communication
Uses of information
Day – to – day routine work, Knowledge, Planning, Forecasting
Value of information
The value of information is determined on the basis of its relevance. The moment you create or receive information, it has a great value but this drops rapidly with time. This leads to a veryimportant rule called the ‘Golden Rule’ of information. It states that the highest value of information occurs at time zero.
Computers can be classified as follows
Type , Size and Capability, Purpose
logic,- Digital computers . Analog computers, Hybrid computers
to size and capability-Super computers, Mainframe computers, Mini computers,Micro computers
purpose-General purpose computers,Special purpose computers - air traffic control systems., Controlling fuel in automobiles).A digital computer can count and accept numbers and letters through various inputdevices,
accuracy ,Disadvantage - high cost,Analog computers are carried out by a few single purpose devices, low cost,disadvantage-accuracy factor, and the limited storage capacity. It is not suitable for processing business data.A Hybrid computers using some parts employing digital computations and some
partsbased on Analog principles.Eg-
pressure meters, gauze, thermometers,
Super computers
Largest and fastest
.Not used for commercial data processing.
Used in specialized areas asin
Defense, Aircraft design, computer generated movies, weather research etc.
The firstsuper computer 
made by
Other suppliers
 A supercomputer 
CRAY-1 is considered the most powerful computer today.
CRAY-2 and CRAY-3 developed by Seymore Cray are wonderful
CanProcess 64 bits or more at a time.Processing speed ranges from 10,000 millioninstructions per sec (MIPS) to 1.2 billion instructions per sec.
Mainframe Computers
Less powerful and cheaper . Big general purpose computers capable of handling all kinds of scientific and business applications. Can process several million instructionsper second.Devices like magnetic tape drivers, hard disk drive, visual display units,plotters, printers and telecommunication terminals can be attached to Mainframecomputers.ES/9000 family of computers of the International Business Machines Corp.(IBM) used for such applications as payroll computations, accounting, businesstransactions, information retrieval and airline seat reservations.
Mini Computers
performs data processing activities. The cost of minis islower.A mini computer can typically support 10 to 12 terminals. The most popular Minicomputers or minis areNova,Dec, PDP_II and IBM series.

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