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Bai Giang Cong Nghe Phan Mem

Bai Giang Cong Nghe Phan Mem

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: boybatygool on Jun 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/27/2011

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ð
I H
C K
THU
T CÔNG NGH
 
 Khoa Công ngh
 
Thông tin
BÀI GI
NG MÔN H
C
CÔNG NGH
PH
N M
M
Biên so
n: Nguy
n Chánh Thành
THÁNG 08 N
Ă
M 2008
 
 
i
M
C L
C
M
C L
C
............................................................................................................. I
 
CH
ƯƠ 
NG 1.
 
PH
N M
M VÀ CÔNG NGH
PH
N M
M
.............................. 1
 
1.1.
 
T
ng quan v
khái ni
m Ph
n m
m (software) ............................................................................ 1
 
1.2.
 
ð
c
ñ
i
m c
a ph
n m
m ................................................................................................................ 1
 
1.3.
 
Phân lo
i ph
n m
m ....................................................................................................................... 2
 
1.3.1.
 
Theo ph
ươ 
ng th
c ho
t
ñ
ng........................................................................................................ 2
 
1.3.2.
 
Theo kh
n
ă
ng
ng d
ng .............................................................................................................. 2
 
1.4.
 
T
m quan tr
ng và s
 
ti
n hóa c
a ph
n m
m ............................................................................ 3
 
1.4.1.
 
Ti
n hóa c
a ph
n m
m ............................................................................................................... 3
 
1.4.2.
 
S
 
ng d
ng c
a ph
n m
m ......................................................................................................... 4
 
1.5.
 
S
ơ 
l
ư 
c v
quá trình t
o ph
n m
m ............................................................................................... 6
 
1.5.1.
 
V
m
t thi
t k
............................................................................................................................. 6
 
1.5.2.
 
S
n xu
t và phát tri
n ................................................................................................................... 6
 
1.6.
 
Khó kh
ă
n, thách th
 
c
ñ
i v
 
i phát tri
n ph
n m
m .................................................................... 6
 
1.6.1.
 
Ph
n m
m và ph
n m
m t
t ......................................................................................................... 7
 
1.6.2.
 
ð
c tr
ư
ng phát tri
n và v
n hành ph
n m
m ................................................................................ 8
 
1.6.3.
 
Nhu c
u và
ñ
ph
c t
p ................................................................................................................ 9
 
1.7.
 
Công ngh
ph
n m
m ................................................................................................................... 10
 
1.7.1.
 
ð
nh ngh
 ĩ 
a .................................................................................................................................. 10
 
1.8.
 
Các mô hình phát tri
n s
n ph
m ph
n m
m............................................................................. 11
 
1.8.1.
 
Mô hình vòng
ñ 
i c
 
ñ
i
n .......................................................................................................... 11
 
1.8.2.
 
Mô hình làm b
n m
u ................................................................................................................. 13
 
1.8.3.
 
Mô hình xo
n
c ......................................................................................................................... 15
 
1.8.4.
 
K
thu
t th
h
th
t
ư
................................................................................................................. 16
 
1.8.5.
 
Mô hình l
p trình linh ho
t ......................................................................................................... 17
 
1.8.6.
 
T
h
 
p các mô hình .................................................................................................................... 19
 
1.8.7.
 
Tính kh
th
c
a quá trình công ngh
......................................................................................... 19
 
1.8.8.
 
V
n
ñ
gi
m kích c
 
c
a ph
n m
m........................................................................................... 20
 
1.9.
 
Cái nhìn chung v
công ngh
ph
n m
m ..................................................................................... 21
 
1.10.
 
H
ư 
ng t
ươ 
ng lai c
a công ngh
ph
n m
m ................................................................................ 22
 
1.11.
 
T
ng k
t ......................................................................................................................................... 23
 
CH
ƯƠ 
NG 2.
 
PHÂN TÍCH VÀ
ð
C T
YÊU C
U
......................................... 24
 
2.1.
 
ð
i c
ươ 
ng v
phân tích và
ñ
c t
................................................................................................. 24
 
2.2.
 
Nghiên c
 
u kh
thi ........................................................................................................................ 25
 
 
 
ii
2.2.1.
 
Kh
thi v
kinh t
....................................................................................................................... 26
 
2.2.2.
 
Kh
thi v
k
thu
t ..................................................................................................................... 26
 
2.2.3.
 
Kh
thi v
pháp ...................................................................................................................... 27
 
2.2.4.
 
Tính kh
thi v
ho
t
ñ
ng ........................................................................................................... 27
 
2.3.
 
N
n t
ng c
a phân tích yêu c
u ................................................................................................... 27
 
2.3.1.
 
Các nguyên lý phân tích ............................................................................................................. 27
 
2.3.2.
 
hình hóa ............................................................................................................................... 28
 
2.3.3.
 
Ng
ư 
i phân tích .......................................................................................................................... 31
 
2.4.
 
Xác
ñ
nh và
ñ
c t
yêu c
u ........................................................................................................... 31
 
2.4.1.
 
Xác
ñ
nh yêu c
u ........................................................................................................................ 31
 
2.4.2.
 
ð
c t
yêu c
u ............................................................................................................................ 32
 
2.4.3.
 
Th
m
ñ
nh yêu c
u ..................................................................................................................... 33
 
2.5.
 
Làm b
n m
u trong quá trình phân tích .................................................................................... 34
 
2.5.1.
 
Các b
ư 
c làm b
n m
u ............................................................................................................... 34
 
2.6.
 
ð
nh d
ng
ñ
c t
yêu c
u ............................................................................................................. 36
 
2.7.
 
T
ng k
t ......................................................................................................................................... 38
 
CH
ƯƠ 
NG 3.
 
THI
T K
PH
N M
M
............................................................ 39
 
3.1.
 
Khái ni
m v
thi
t k
ph
n m
m ................................................................................................. 39
 
3.1.1.
 
Khái ni
m ................................................................................................................................... 39
 
3.1.2.
 
T
m quan tr
ng .......................................................................................................................... 39
 
3.1.3.
 
Quá trình thi
t k
........................................................................................................................ 40
 
3.1.4.
 
C
ơ 
s
 
c
a thi
t k
....................................................................................................................... 41
 
3.1.5.
 
Mô t
thi
t k
............................................................................................................................. 42
 
3.1.6.
 
Ch
t l
ư 
ng thi
t k
..................................................................................................................... 44
 
3.2.
 
Thi
t k
h
ư 
ng ch
 
c n
ă
ng ............................................................................................................ 46
 
3.2.1.
 
Cách ti
p c
n h
ư 
ng ch
c n
ă
ng ................................................................................................. 46
 
3.2.2.
 
Bi
u
ñ
lu
ng d
li
u ................................................................................................................. 47
 
3.2.3.
 
L
ư 
c
ñ
c
u trúc ......................................................................................................................... 47
 
3.2.4.
 
Các t
 
ñ
i
n d
li
u ..................................................................................................................... 47
 
3.3.
 
Thi
t k
h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng ............................................................................................................. 48
 
3.3.1.
 
Cách ti
p c
n h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng .................................................................................................. 48
 
3.3.2.
 
Ba
ñ
c tr
ư
ng c
a thi
t k
h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng ................................................................................ 48
 
3.3.3.
 
C
ơ 
s
 
c
a thi
t k
h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng ........................................................................................... 48
 
3.3.4.
 
Các b
ư 
c thi
t k
........................................................................................................................ 49
 
3.3.5.
 
Ư 
u nh
ư 
c
ñ
i
m c
a thi
t k
h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng ............................................................................ 50
 
3.3.6.
 
Quan h
gi
a thi
t k
và l
p trình h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng ................................................................... 50
 
3.3.7.
 
Quan h
gi
a thi
t k
h
ư 
ng
ñ
i t
ư 
ng và h
ư 
ng ch
c n
ă
ng ..................................................... 51
 
3.4.
 
Thi
t k
giao di
n ng
ư 
i s
 
d
ng ................................................................................................. 51
 
3.4.1.
 
M
t s
v
n
ñ
thi
t k
................................................................................................................ 53
 
3.4.2.
 
M
t s
h
ư 
ng d
n thi
t k
.......................................................................................................... 54
 
3.5.
 
T
ng k
t ......................................................................................................................................... 54
 
CH
ƯƠ 
NG 4.
 
L
P TRÌNH
............................................................................... 56
 

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