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MC0070 - Set 1

MC0070 - Set 1

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SMU MCA Assignments
SMU MCA Assignments

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February 2010Master of Computer Application (MCA) –Semester 2MC0070 – Operating Systems with UnixAssignment Set – 1
1. Describe the following operating systemcomponents: A) Process Management B) Main MemorManagement C) File Management D) I/O SystemManagement 
Ans –
A) Process Management
 The operating system manages many kinds of activities rangingfrom user programs to system programs like printer spooler, nameservers, file server etc. Each of these activities is encapsulated in aprocess. A process includes the complete execution context (code, data,PC, registers, OS resources in use etc.).It is important to note that a process is not a program. A process isonly ONE instant of a program in execution. There are many processescan be running the same program. The five major activities of anoperating system in regard to process management are1. Creation and deletion of user and system processes.2. Suspension and resumption of processes.3. A mechanism for process synchronization.4. A mechanism for process communication.5. A mechanism for deadlock handling.
B)Main-Memory Management
Primary-Memory or Main-Memory is a large array of words or bytes.Each word or byte has its own address. Main-memory provides storagethat can be access directly by the CPU. That is to say for a program to beexecuted, it must in the main memory. The major activities of an operating in regard to memory-managementare:
 
1. Keep track of which part of memory are currently being used and bywhom.2. Decide which processes are loaded into memory when memory spacebecomes available.3. Allocate and de-allocate memory space as needed.
C) File Management
A file is a collection of related information defined by its creator.Computer can store files on the disk (secondary storage), which provideslong term storage. Some examples of storage media are magnetic tape,magnetic disk and optical disk. Each of these media has its ownproperties like speed, capacity, data transfer rate and access methods.A file system normally organized into directories to ease their use. These directories may contain files and other directions. The five main major activities of an operating system in regard to filemanagement are1. The creation and deletion of files.2. The creation and deletion of directions.3. The support of primitives for manipulating files and directions.4. The mapping of files onto secondary storage.5. The back up of files on stable storage media.
D) I/O System Management
I/O subsystem hides the peculiarities of specific hardware devicesfrom the user. Only the device driver knows the peculiarities of thespecific device to whom it is assigned.
2. Describe the following: A. Layered Approach B. Micro Kernels C. Virtual Machines
Ans –
A)Layered Approach
With proper hardware support, operating systems can be broken intopieces that are smaller and more appropriate than those allowed by theoriginal MS-DOS or UNIX systems. The operating system can then retainmuch greater control over the computer and over the applications thatmake use of that computer. Implementers have more freedom inchanging the inner workings of the system and in creating modularoperating systems. Under the top-down approach, the overallfunctionality and features are determined and the separated into
 
components. Information hiding is also important, because it leavesprogrammers free to implement the low-level routines as they see fit,provided that the external interface of the routine stays unchanged andthat the routine itself performs the advertised task.A system can be made modular in many ways. One method is the
layered approach,
in which the operating system is broken up into anumber of layers (levels). The bottom layer (layer 0) id the hardware; thehighest (layer N) is the user interface.
UsersFile SystemsInter-processCommunicationI/O and DeviceManagementVirtual MemoryPrimitive ProcessManagementHardware
Layered ArchitectureAn operating-system layer is an implementation of an abstractobject made up of data and the operations that can manipulate thosedata. A typical operating – system layer-say, layer M-consists of datastructures and a set of routines that can be invoked by higher-levellayers. Layer M, in turn, can invoke operations on lower-level layers. The main advantage of the layered approach is simplicity of construction and debugging. The layers are selected so that each usesfunctions (operations) and services of only lower-level layers. Thisapproach simplifies debugging and system verification. The first layercan be debugged without any concern for the rest of the system,because, by definition, it uses only the basic hardware (which is assumedcorrect) to implement its functions. Once the first layer is debugged, itscorrect functioning can be assumed while the second layer is debugged,and so on. If an error is found during debugging of a particular layer, theerror must be on that layer, because the layers below it are alreadydebugged. Thus, the design and implementation of the system issimplified.Each layer is implemented with only those operations provided bylower-level layers. A layer does not need to know how these operationsare implemented; it needs to know only what these operations do.Hence, each layer hides the existence of certain data structures,operations, and hardware from higher-level layers. The major difficultywith the layered approach involves appropriately defining the various

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