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MC0075 - Set 2

MC0075 - Set 2

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Published by: nikeneel on Jun 02, 2010
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February 2010Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 3MC0075 – Computer Networks
Assignment Set – 2
1. Explain the following design issues regarding the DataLink Layer: A) Framing B) Error Control C) FlowControl 
Ans –
 The DLL translates the physical layer’s raw bit stream into discreteunits (messages) called
. That is because the physical layer justaccepts a raw bit stream and to deliver it to the destination. This bit streamis not guaranteed to be error free. The number of bits received may be lessthan, equal to, or more than the number of bits transmitted. They may alsohave different values. It is up to DLL to detect and if necessary correcterrors. If not correct at least detect errors and take proper action like askfor retransmission etc. The usual approach of DLL is to break the bit streamup into discrete frames and then for the purpose of error detection orcorrection, it uses some coding technique that finds some checksum foreach frame. When a frame arrives at the destination, the checksum isrecomputed. If the newly computed checksum is different from the onecontained in the frame, the DLL knows that an error has occurred and takessteps to deal with it.Now the question is how can the receiver detect frame boundaries? That is, how can the receiver recognize the start and end of a frame? Thusbreaking the bit streams up into frames is more difficult than it appears tobe. One way is to insert time gaps between frames, much like spaces usedbetween words in ordinary text. But hardly networks make any guaranteesabout timings, since it is too risky to count on timings to mark start and endof each frame, other framing techniques have been devised and discussedbelow. Here in this unit we discuss four methods, that are used or evencombinations of these methods are used in different protocols.
B)Error control
Error control is concerned with insuring that all frames are eventuallydelivered and possibly in order to a destination as they are sent from thesource. How? Three items are required.
 Typically, reliable delivery is achieved using the “acknowledgmentswith retransmission’’. Here the receiver returns a special acknowledgment(ACK) frame to the sender indicating the correct receipt of a frame. In somesystems, the receiver also returns a negative acknowledgment (NACK) forincorrectly-received frames. This is nothing more than a hint to the senderso that it can retransmit a frame right away without waiting for a timer toexpire.
One problem that simple ACK/NACK schemes fail to address isrecovering from a frame that is lost, and as a result, fails to solicit an ACK orNACK. What happens if an ACK or NACK becomes lost? Retransmissiontimers are used to resend frames that don’t produce an ACK. When sendinga frame, schedule a timer to expire at some time after the ACK should havebeen returned. If the timer goes off, retransmit the frame.
Sequence Numbers:
Retransmissions introduce the possibility of duplicate frames. Tosuppress duplicates, add sequence numbers to each frame, so that areceiver can distinguish between new frames and old copies.In data communication, line noise is a fact of life (e.g., signalattenuation, natural phenomenon such as lightning, and the telephonerepairman). Moreover, noise usually occurs as bursts rather thanindependent, single bit errors. For example, a burst of lightning will affect aset of bits for a short time after the lightning strike. Detecting andcorrecting errors requires redundancy — sending additional informationalong with the data.
C) Flow control
Flow control deals with throttling the speed of the sender to matchthat of the receiver. Usually, this is a dynamic process, as the receivingspeed depends on such changing factors as the load, and availability of buffer space. There are two approaches
1. feedback-based flow control2. rate based flow controlIn feedback-based flow control, the receiver sends back informationto the sender giving it permission to send more data or at least telling thesender how the receiver is doing.In rate based flow control, the protocol has a built in mechanism thatlimits the rate at which senders may transmit the data without usingfeedback from the receiver.DLL deals implements the flow control using the feedback-basedtechniques. And Rate based flow control methods are not used in the datalink layer.
2. Describe the following Medium Access Control SubLayer’s Multiple access protocols:A) Pure ALOHA or Unslotted ALOHAB) Slotted ALOHA or Impure ALOHA
Ans –
Pure or Unslotted Aloha
 The ALOHA network was created at the University of Hawaii in 1970under the leadership of Norman Abramson. The Aloha protocol is an OSIlayer 2 protocol for LAN networks with broadcast topology. The first version of the protocol was basic:· If you have data to send, send the data· If the message collides with another transmission, try resending later
Figure: Pure ALOHA

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