Error control is concerned with insuring that all frames are eventuallydelivered and possibly in order to a destination as they are sent from thesource. How? Three items are required.
Typically, reliable delivery is achieved using the “acknowledgmentswith retransmission’’. Here the receiver returns a special acknowledgment(ACK) frame to the sender indicating the correct receipt of a frame. In somesystems, the receiver also returns a negative acknowledgment (NACK) forincorrectly-received frames. This is nothing more than a hint to the senderso that it can retransmit a frame right away without waiting for a timer toexpire.
One problem that simple ACK/NACK schemes fail to address isrecovering from a frame that is lost, and as a result, fails to solicit an ACK orNACK. What happens if an ACK or NACK becomes lost? Retransmissiontimers are used to resend frames that don’t produce an ACK. When sendinga frame, schedule a timer to expire at some time after the ACK should havebeen returned. If the timer goes off, retransmit the frame.
Retransmissions introduce the possibility of duplicate frames. Tosuppress duplicates, add sequence numbers to each frame, so that areceiver can distinguish between new frames and old copies.In data communication, line noise is a fact of life (e.g., signalattenuation, natural phenomenon such as lightning, and the telephonerepairman). Moreover, noise usually occurs as bursts rather thanindependent, single bit errors. For example, a burst of lightning will affect aset of bits for a short time after the lightning strike. Detecting andcorrecting errors requires redundancy — sending additional informationalong with the data.
C) Flow control
Flow control deals with throttling the speed of the sender to matchthat of the receiver. Usually, this is a dynamic process, as the receivingspeed depends on such changing factors as the load, and availability of buffer space. There are two approaches