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SENSORLESS FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

SENSORLESS FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS PERMANENT MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS

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04/13/2013

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SENSORLESS FIELD ORIENTED CONTROL OF BRUSHLESS PERMANENTMAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS byJAMES ROBERT MEVEYB.S., Kansas State University, 2006A REPORTsubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degreeMASTER OF SCIENCEDepartment of Electrical and Computer EngineeringCollege of EngineeringKANSAS STATE UNIVERSITYManhattan, Kansas2009Approved by:Major Professor James E. DeVault
 
 
Abstract
Working with the subject of sensorless motor control requires an understanding of several topicalareas; this report presents an understanding that was gained during this research work. Thefundamentals of electric motors (particularly brushless motors) are developed from first principles and the basic models are discussed. The theory of sinusoidal synchronous motors isreviewed (phasor analysis of the single phase equivalent circuit). The concept of a complex spacevector is introduced and developed using a working knowledge of the sinusoidal synchronousmotor. This leads to the presentation of the space vector model of the permanent magnetsynchronous motor, in both the stationary and rotor reference frames. An overview of theoperation of three-phase voltage source inverters is given, followed by an explanation of spacevector modulation and its relationship to regular sinusoidal pulse width modulation. Torquecontrol of the permanent magnet synchronous machine is reviewed in several reference framesand then rotor-flux-field-oriented-control is explained. Finally, some schemes for sensorlessoperation are discussed.
 
 iii
Table of Contents
List of Figures................................................................................................................................vii
 
List of Tables................................................................................................................................xiv
 
List of Symbols..............................................................................................................................xv
 
Abbreviations...............................................................................................................................xvii
 
 Nomenclature..............................................................................................................................xviii
 
Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................xx  CHAPTER 1 - Introduction.............................................................................................................1
 
Organization................................................................................................................................6  CHAPTER 2 - Fundamentals of Electric Motors............................................................................9
 
Preliminaries..............................................................................................................................11
 
Motor Structures....................................................................................................................11
 
Taxonomy of Motors.............................................................................................................13
 
Magnetic Saliency.................................................................................................................17
 
Armature and Field................................................................................................................21
 
Elementary Physics and Modeling............................................................................................22
 
Faraday’s Law.......................................................................................................................22
 
Lorentz Force Law................................................................................................................25
 
 
Per-Phase Back-EMF Generation & Torque Production...........................................................36
 
Torque Production.................................................................................................................38
 
Back-EMF Generation..........................................................................................................40
 
Equivalence of Per-Phase Back-EMF and Torque Functions...............................................41
 
 
General Electromechanical Models...........................................................................................47
 
Trapezoidal and Sinusoidal BPMS Motors...............................................................................51
 
Torque Production.................................................................................................................51
 
Torque & Back-EMF Constants............................................................................................56
 
Electronic Commutation.......................................................................................................57
 
Types of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors.....................................................................59  CHAPTER 3 - Sinusoidal BPMS Motors......................................................................................62
 
Part I – Sinusoidal BPMS Motors with Sinusoidal Currents.....................................................63
 
Physical Construction and Windings....................................................................................63
 
The Rotating Field.................................................................................................................65
 
Graphical Illustration........................................................................................................65
 
Mathematical Derivation..................................................................................................72
 
Electrical and Mechanical Measures................................................................................75
 
Torque Production.................................................................................................................77
 
Phasor Diagram and Single-Phase Equivalent (SPE) Circuit................................................82 

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