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Design and Prototyping Methods for Brushless Motors and Motor Control

Design and Prototyping Methods for Brushless Motors and Motor Control

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Published by: scardig on Jun 02, 2010
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05/21/2013

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Design and Prototyping Methods for Brushless Motorsand Motor Control
 byShane W. ColtonB.S., Mechanical Engineering (2008)Massachusetts Institute of TechnologySubmitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineeringin Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineeringat theMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyJune 2010© Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyAll rights reservedSignature of Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Department of Mechanical EngineeringMay 7, 2010Certified by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Daniel FreyAssociate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering SystemsThesis Supervisor Accepted by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
David E. Hardt
Ralph E. & Eloise F. Cross Professor of Mechanical EngineeringChairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students
 
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Design and Prototyping Methods for Brushless Motorsand Motor Control
 byShane W. ColtonSubmitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineeringon May 7, 2010 in partial fulfillment of therequirements for the Degree of Master of Science inMechanical EngineeringABSTRACTIn this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanentmagnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrateand validate the methods. Two 500W hub motors are implemented in a direct-drive electricscooter. The third case study, a 10kW axial flux motor, is used to demonstrate the flexibility of the design methods.A variety of ways to predict the motor constant, which relates torque tocurrent and speed to voltage, are presented. The predictions range from first-order DC estimatesto full dynamic simulations, yielding increasingly accurate results. Ways to predict windingresistance, as well as other sources of loss in motors, are discussed in the context of the motor’soverall power rating. Rapid prototyping methods for brushless motors prove to be useful in thefabrication of the case study motors. Simple no-load evaluation techniques confirm the predictedmotor constants without large, expensive test equipment.Methods for brushless motor controllerdesign and prototyping are also presented. The casestudy, a two channel, 1kW per channel brushless motor controller, is fully developed and used toillustrate these methods.The electrical requirements of the controller (voltage, current,frequency) influence the selection of components, such as power transistors and bus capacitors.Mechanical requirements, such as overall dimensions, heat transfer, and vibration tolerance, also play a large role in the design. With full-system prototyping in mind, the controller integrateswireless data acquisition for debugging. Field-oriented AC control is implemented on low-costhardware using a novel modification of the standard synchronous current regulator. Thecontroller performance is evaluated under load on two case study systems: On the direct-driveelectric scooter, it simultaneously and independently controls the two motors. On a high- performance remote-control car, a more extreme operating point is tested with one motor.Thesis Supervisor: Daniel FreyTitle: Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Systems

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