. The four leverage points workin synergy, forming the base of our framework.Our framework for a new Internet architecture learnsand applies basic ideas and experiences from the tra-ditional
. We ﬁnd mostprinciples in that area can be directly applied to theInternet context if we treat the aforementioned
as the counterpart of the natural environmentin the traditional sustainable development area. More-over, we ﬁnd that these principles can work better in theInternet context. Most surprisingly, applying them tothe Internet context can create priceless products thatlead to fundamental innovations not only for Internetdevelopment but also for scopes beyond it. A typicalexample of such products is the improvement of com-mon human values and social trusts, which is the keyto solve many problems that are currently unsolvableby technical means
.Sustainable development challenges are huge as pointedout by principles of traditional sustainable development,but there is an
: Progress in sustain-able development creates new beneﬁts and tools thathelp its further progress,
sustainable development provides solutions to itself
. Therefore, what we need todo now is to ﬁnd critical leverage points and make the“ﬁrst snowball” (similar to what
projects are working towards). Once we get it, what wedo next is to simply roll the snowball. Developing the“ﬁrst snowball” of sustainable development is what wefocus on in this paper.The reminder of this paper is organized as follows:In Section 2 we introduce basic theories in traditionalsustainable development and explain how these insightscan be applied in the Internet context. In Section 3 wedescribe our framework and design principles for thenew Internet architecture. In Section 4 we discuss oursolution to evolvability. In Section 5 we show imple-mentation examples of our framework. In Section 6 wepresent related work. Finally, we conclude in Section 7.
2. BACKGROUND2.1 Sustainable Development
In this section, we introduce the background of sus-tainable development. To avoid ambiguities, we use theabbreviation
to denote the
sustain-able development (that relates to economy and ecosys-tem), and use the term
to denote sustainabledevelopment in the Internet context.
2.1.1 Basic Principles
It is increasingly recognized that we need to achieve
— development that not only
Technical means are solutions that require “a change onlyin the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding littleor nothing in the way of change in human values or ideasof morality” . An example of a problem unsolvable bytechnical means is the
Tragedy of the Commons
, which hasbeen known for centuries and still has no solution. It showshow uncontrolled freedom can cause a tragedy.
improves economic goals, but also advances
well beings simultaneously. Still, untilthe 1980s, the overwhelming opinion was that therewere inevitable and fundamental trade-oﬀs among thethree. Taking economy and environment for example,people believed that the more one promotes develop-ment and growth, the worse oﬀ the environment willbe. Indeed, the belief was that there was little pos-sibility to achieve signiﬁcant win-win outcomes. How-ever, progress in the SusEco domain in the last threedecades has shown the feasibility to achieve a win-win-win goal by better balancing the short- and long-termneeds and government leadership. The following are ﬁvewell known SusEco principles:
1. “Business is good for sustainable development and sustainable development is good for business.”
Businessis a part of the sustainable development solution, whilesustainable development is an eﬀective long-term busi-ness growth strategy.
2. “Good governance is needed to make business a part of the solution.”
Good gov-ernance provides solution to conﬂicts arising from theinteraction between the short-term pressure induced bybusinesses’ ﬁnancial goals and the emerging principlesof sustainable development.
3. “Access to markets for all supports sustainable development.”
Sustainable de-velopment is best achieved through open, transparent,and competitive global markets.
4. “Cooperation beatsconfrontation.”
Sustainable development challenges arehuge and require contributions from all parties — gov-ernments, businesses, civil societies, and internationalbodies. Confrontation puts the solutions at risk. Co-operation and creative partnerships foster sustainabledevelopment.
5. “Thinking locally, acting globally.”
While there is much we can do locally, action is alsoneeded at the global level. There is an inevitable needfor nations to collaborate to solve common problems.We apply all the ﬁve SusEco principles to SusInet.Principle 1 points out
basic incentives and necessity
forISPs and IT corporations to conduct SusInet practices.Principle 2 validates our approach to introduce
(Section 3.6) into our solution. Prin-ciple 3 is the reason why we emphasize the
(Section 3.6.2). Principle 4 corresponds to ageneral solution to SusInet,
(Sec-tion 3.7). Principle 5 is straightforward due to Inter-net’s global nature. However, in this paper we focusmore on
2.1.2 The “Tragedy of the Commons” — Call for Control
Tragedy of the Commons
is a problem that hasbeen known for centuries and still has no solution. It isa typical example that shows how
can lead to a disaster. The Tragedy happens when it isimpossible, or at least very costly, to deny access to cer-tain
, marine ﬁsh). In a situationwhere many have access to the same limited resource,there is an incentive for each consumer to acquire asmuch of that resource as possible (
, overﬁsh), before2