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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: eecs.northwestern.edu on Jun 02, 2010
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Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department
Technical ReportNWU-EECS-08-06August 15, 2008
Towards Efficient Large-Scale VPN Monitoring and Diagnosisunder Operational Constraints
Yao Zhao, Zhaosheng Zhu, Yan Chen, Dan Pei and Jia Wang
Continuous monitoring and diagnosis of network performance are of crucial importancefor the Internet access service and virtual private network (VPN) service providers.Various operational constraints, which are crucial to the practice, are largely ignored inprevious monitoring system designs, or are simply replaced with load balancing problemswhich do not work for real heterogeneous networks.Given these real-world challenges, in this paper, we design a VScope monitoring systemwith the following contributions. First, we design a greedy-assisted linear programmingalgorithm to select as few monitors as possible that can monitor the whole network underthe operational constraints. Secondly, VScope takes a multi-round measurement approachwhich gives a smooth tradeoff between measurement frequency and monitorsdeployment/management cost. We propose three algorithms to schedule the pathmeasurements in different rounds obeying the operational constraints. Finally, we designa continuous monitoring and diagnosis mechanism which selects the minimal extra pathsto measure to identify the faulty links after the discovery of faulty paths. Evaluationsbased on several real VPN topologies from a tier-1 ISP as well as some other synthetictopologies demonstrate that VScope is promising to solve the aforementioned challenges.
VPN, monitoring and diagnosis, operation constraints
Towards Efficient Large-Scale VPN Monitoring andDiagnosis under Operational Constraints
Continuous monitoring and diagnosis of net-work performance are of crucial importance for theInternet access service and virtual private network (VPN)service providers. Various operational constraints, whichare crucial to the practice, are largely ignored in previousmonitoring system designs, or are simply replaced withload balancing problems which do not work for realheterogeneous networks.Given these real-world challenges, in this paper, wedesign a
V Scope
monitoring system with the followingcontributions. First, we design a greedy-assisted linearprogramming algorithm to select as few monitors aspossible that can monitor the whole network under theoperational constraints. Secondly, VScope takes a
multi- round 
measurement approach which gives a smooth trade-off between measurement frequency and monitors de-ployment/management cost. We propose three algorithmsto schedule the path measurements in different roundsobeying the operational constraints. Finally, we design acontinuous monitoring and diagnosis mechanism whichselects the minimal extra paths to measure to identify thefaulty links after the discovery of faulty paths. Evaluationsbased on several real VPN topologies from a tier-1 ISPas well as some other synthetic topologies demonstratethat VScope is promising to solve the aforementionedchallenges.
1. I
Recently the Internet has witnessed an unprecedentedgrowth in terms of the scale of its infrastructure, thetraffic load, as well as the abundant applications. Moreimportantly, there is an exponential growth for MPLS-based IP Virtual Private Networks (VPN) recently. Largeenterprise networks often have multiple sites that are atseperate geographical locations. For example, large cor-porations such as IBM and Nokia have offices/branchesthat locate in many countries. Another example is largeretail stores such as Macys and Wal-Mart, which havethousands of stores globally. To connect sites (e.g., anoffice or a store location) within an enterprise network,one approach would be to deploy/lease physical linesbetween sites. Alternatively, connectivity between sitescan be provided and managed by ISPs via MPLS/VPN.This approach has been adopted widely because of itslow cost and great flexibility.Because a VPN provider is often the sole providerof connectivity among a customers sites, continuousmonitoring and diagnosis of VPN performance are of crucial importance for the VPN service providers toensure the reliability and quality of service, especiallygiven that VPNs often carry important business appli-cations, such as VoIP, realtime streaming video, andfinancial transactions that do not react well to even smalltraffic disruptions. In addition, from an ISP’s perspective,continuous monitoring of network performance not onlyhelps reporting and diagnosing possible service levelagreements (SLAs) violations, but also provides usefulinput to many important network operations such astraffic engineering and network provisioning.Today, ISPs heavily rely on the standard passivemonitoring approach via SNMP, which usually pollsthe status of each router/switch periodically. However,there are several issues. First, an ISP usually provideVPN services to a large number of customers such asenterprise networks, all of which run on top of thesame ISP infrastructure. As such, the ISP needs tomonitor hundreds of thousands of routers. Therefore, itis infeasible to frequently poll every router due to thelarge bandwidth and management overhead. Secondly,SNMP based monitoring is unable to measure the path-level features such as latency.Therefore, active measurements are important com-plement to the SNMP based monitoring approach andare also used by ISPs widely. However, most existingnetwork monitoring and diagnosis designs [1]–[7] missan important piece: various constraints that should beimposed on the monitors and links so that the mea-surement does not interfere with the normal operationor traffic, and meets the business requirement (in thecase of VPN). For example, the capacity of access linksthat connects each site belong to a single VPN can bevery limited. Note that the link capacity often is notthe physical link capacity, but the maximal bandwidthallowed. For example, we find that vast majority of access links in thousands of VPNs managed by a tier-
1 ISP only have 1.54Mbps capacity. This is becausecustomers often do not have incentive to pay for theirproviders to over provision the access link capacity.We define the
operational constraints
to be the set of constraints or rules that the monitoring system shouldcomply to. For example, a typical constraint can be thatall the measurement overhead over a link cannot exceed1% of the link capacity.In this paper, our goal is to design a monitoring anddiagnosis system for the VPN infrastructure that ISPsdeploy to host VPN services. Usually the backbone linksare over-provisioned (
, 10Gbps) while access linksmay have several orders of magnitude difference in termsof capacity (
, 1.54Mbps mentioned above). Such highheterogeneity of link capacities and router capabilitiesmakes it very likely to severely overload some mon-itors and links when selecting the monitors or pathsfor monitoring (as in [1, 4, 5, 7]) without consideringthese constraints. Taking the operational constraints intoaccount makes this problem very challenging and uniquefrom the existing work for the following reasons.
Considering the operational constraints makes somewell-known problems much harder. As we show inSection 3.2, minimizing the number of monitors underthe constraints becomes harder than some notoriousNP-hard problems.
Most tomography work assumes that all the pathsto be monitored will be measured simultaneously [1,4, 5, 7]. However, this setup may not be true orefficient under the real-world constraints. Under tightconstraints, the monitoring system may have to sched-ule the measurement in different time slots. We foundthis particularly crucial for the VPN topologies whichexhibit star-like topologies where a backbone routerconnects to a large number of customer routers.To address these challenges, in this paper, we propose
, a
monitoring and diagnosis systemfor VPN. While we mainly focus on VPN service inthis paper, our system is general enough to work onany other network that its resources are limited and theoperational constraints should be considered in its activemonitoring system (
IP network of a small Tier-3ISP). VScope consists of two phases: 1) monitor setupphase which selects the candidate routers as monitorsand schedules the paths to be measured by the monitors
in multiple rounds
, and 2) continuous monitoring anddiagnosis phase. We make the following contributions indesigning the VScope.First, we design algorithms to select as few monitorsas possible that can monitor the whole network under theoperational constraints. The special case of our problemignoring the operational constraints is shown to be NP-hard in [1]. Considering the operational constraints, wemodel our problem as a unique combination of the two-level nested Set Cover problem and constraint satisfac-tion problem. We found that no existing solutions suchas those for variants of Set Cover problem [8] can bedirectly applied to solve this new problem. Thus we de-sign a greedy-assisted linear programming algorithm forit. In addition, we develop a simple but scalable greedyalgorithm for a smooth efficiency-optimality tradeoff.Secondly, VScope takes a multi-round measure-ment approach which gives a smooth tradeoff be-tween measurement frequency and monitors deploy-ment/management cost. With the single-round measure-ment algorithms as the basis, we propose three algo-rithms to schedule the path measurements in differentrounds obeying the operational constraints.Finally, VScope not only detects the
of some fault (
large loss rates or latency) but alsoquickly identify exactly which links are faulty so thatoperators can take actions for mitigation. We design acontinuous monitoring and diagnosis mechanism whichaims to select the minimal number of paths to measurefor diagnosis under operational constraints.Besides some synthetic topologies, we mainly evalu-ate the VScope system with one IP network topologyand two VPN topologies,
all with the real topologies,capacities, loss rates and constraints
, from a tier-1 ISP.The sizes of networks vary from hundreds to hundredsof thousands of routers. The results demonstrate that weare able to select about 5% of routers as monitors tocover all the links with all the operational constraints.When faulty
paths are discovered, in about 17 seconds,we identify only a small number of extra paths tobe measured for locating the faulty links with smallgranularity close to that of the physical link. Both falsepositives and false negatives for locating the faulty linksare less than 0.5%.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We intro-duce the problem and VScope architecture in Section 2.We present our design on monitor selection in Section 3and our design on diagnosis in Section 4. The dynamicsissues are discussed in Section 5. Then we show theevaluation methodology and results in Section 6. Finally,we present related work in Section 7 and conclude in
Faulty means lossy in this paper as we currently focus on lossrates.

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