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Iron-Copper Single Replacement Reaction

Iron-Copper Single Replacement Reaction

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Published by: omaralvarezronaldinho on Jun 02, 2010
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Alvarez 1
Omar AlvarezChemistry 1/ Mrs. ThomasPeriod 3May 7
th
, 2010
Fe-Cu Single-Replacement Reaction
Question
:
In the iron-copper single replacement reaction, does the amount of copper  produced depend on the amount of iron used? 
 
Background:
A single-replacement reaction occurs when the atoms of one elementreplace the atoms of another element in a compound (Dingrando, 287). When a metalreplaces another metal in compound, they will not always react to replace each otherbecause metals differ in their reactivities (Dingrando, 287-288). In this case, iron (Fe) willreplace the copper (Cu) in the copper sulfate solution (CuSO
4
), because iron is more activethan copper. The products of the reaction would be iron sulfate (FeSO
4
) and solid copper(Cu).
 
Iron will react with copper sulfate in a one to one ratio (1 mole to 1 mole), accordingto the following chemical equation:
1Fe(s)
+ 1CuSO
4
(aq)
1FeSO
4
(aq) +
1Cu(s)
iron
copper sulfate iron sulfate
copper
 In the reaction, iron will be the limiting reagent; it will all be used up in thereaction. Copper sulfate will be the excess, meaning that not all of it will be used up in thereaction. The number of moles of iron that reacts will be equal to the number of moles of copper produced (1:1). The occurrence of the reaction will be visible since the blue coppersulfate solution turns green due to the iron reacting with the solution, and a color changein iron will occur because iron will react with the copper sulfate solution. After thereaction, the copper will be visible and it will sink to the bottom of the beaker. If thecopper sulfate solution is warm, the reaction occurs almost instantaneously.
 
Alvarez 2
Hypothesis:
If various amounts of iron (Fe) in the range of 0.75g
– 
2.25g are added to anaqueous solution of copper sulfate(CuSO
4
 ) , then the amount of dry, solid copper (Cu) will be the same because the mole ratio is of iron to copper is 1:1.
 
Materials:
 
Iron powder
 
 
Copper sulfate pentahydrate (12g/50mL)
 
 
Distilled water
 
 
Stirring rod
 
 
150-mL beaker
 
 
400-mL beaker
 
100-mL graduated cylinder
 
 
Weighing paper
 
 
Centigram electronic balance
 
 
Hot plate
 
 
Beaker tongs
 
 
Distilled soap solution
 Safety Precautions
:
 
Always wear safety glasses and a lab apron
 
Hot objects will not appear to be hot
 
Do not heat broken, chipped, or cracked glassware
 
Turn off hot plate when not in use
Procedure:
1.
 
Measure and record the mass of a clean, dry 150-mL beaker.2.
 
Place approximately 50-mL (12g) of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO
4.
5H
2
0)into the 150-mL beaker and measure and record the combined mass.3.
 
Heat the solution on the hot plate at a low-medium setting. Do not boil. Usingtongs, remove the beaker from the hot plate carefully, without spilling anysolution.4.
 
Measure approximately 0.75-2.75g of iron (Fe) metal filings onto the piece of weighing paper. Measure and record the exact mass of the iron powder.
 
Alvarez 3
5.
 
While stirring the copper sulfate solution with the stirring rod, slowly add the ironfilings to the hot copper (II) sulfate solution. Do not add all the iron powder atonce. Continue to stir.6.
 
Allow the reaction mixture to stand, without stirring, for about five minutes toensure complete reaction. The solid copper metal will settle to the bottom of thebeaker. If small iron powder is still floating, use a small amount of soap dish tomake the filings settle to the bottom.7.
 
Use the stirring rod to decant (pour off) the liquid slowly into a 400-mL beaker. Becareful to decant only the liquid.8.
 
Add about 15-mL of distilled water to the copper solid and carefully swirl thebeaker to wash the copper. Decant the liquid slowly and carefully into the 400-mLbeaker.9.
 
Repeat step 8 two more times.10.
 
Place the 150-mL beaker containing the wet copper carefully on the hot plate. Uselow heat to dry the copper. Do not overheat the wet copper.11.
 
Once there is no signs of water vapor on the beaker, remove the beaker from thehot plate using tons and allow it to cool.12.
 
Measure and record the exact mass of the cooled 150-mL beaker and copper.
Cleanup and Disposal:
1.
 
Make sure the hot plate is off 2.
 
The dry copper can be placed in a waste container. Wet any residue that sticks tothe beaker and wipe it out using a paper towel. Pour the unreacted copper (II)sulfate and iron (II) sulfate solutions into a large beaker in the fume hood.3.
 
Put all lab equipment to its proper place.4.
 
Wash your hands thoroughly after all lab work and clean up is complete.
Manipulated Variable:
The manipulated variable in this lab is iron because iron will be used to replace the copperin the copper sulfate solution.
Responding Variable:
The responding variable will be copper because it is going to be affected by the amount of iron used in the experiment.

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