Notice that two liquids can be different phases. Therefore, for example, the petrochemicalalkylation process featuresheterogeneous catalysis,although both the catalyst (acid) and reactants (hydrocarbons)are liquids .Thehydrolysisof estersbyacid catalysisis an example of this - all reactants and catalyst are
dissolved in water:
CH3CO2CH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ CH3CO2H(aq) + CH3OH(aq) - with H+ catalyst.
Heterogeneous catalysis is a
is in adifferent phase (i.e.
, but also
.Heterogeneouscatalysts provide a surface for the chemical reaction to take place on. Here, the catalyst is often a solidwhereas the reactive phase is either a solution or a gas. This type of catalysis is extremely important inindustrial processes.The reagents are fixed on the surface of catalyst (often by non-covalent interactions);the newly created interactions weaken internal bonds, which makes them more reactive.In order for the reaction to occur, one or more of the reactants must
to the catalyst surface and
onto it. After reaction, the products must desorb from the surface and diffuse away from the solidsurface. Frequently, this transport of reactants and products from one phase to another plays a dominantrole in limiting the
. Understanding these transport phenomena and
is an important area of heterogeneous catalyst research. Catalystsurface area may also be considered.
,for example, have found utility ascatalysts because their surface areas may be in excess of 1000 m2/g, which increases the probability thata reactant molecule in solution will come in contact with the catalyst surface and adsorb. If diffusion ratesare not taken into account, the reaction rates for various
depend solely on therate constants and reactant concentrations. Asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis can be used tosynthesize enantiomerically pure compounds using chiral heterogeneous catalysts.
transformation of a double C=C bond into simple bond
The reaction is catalysed by a surface of palladium adsorbed on carbon. The reaction occurs in threesteps: adsorption of the reagents (a and b below), transfer of the hydrogen atoms and desorption of theend product (c below).
Today catalysts are used in untold numbers of industrial processes. For example, the commerciallyimportant gas ammonia is produced by combining nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas at a high temperatureand pressure in the presence of a catalyst such as powdered iron. In the absence of the catalyst, thereaction between nitrogen and hydrogen would, for all practical purposes, not occur. In its presence, thereaction occurs quickly enough to produce ammonia gas in large quantities.
Application of new unsymmetrical chiral Mn(III), Co(II,III) and Ti(IV) salen complexes inenantioselective catalytic reactions
New unsymmetrical chiral salen complexes were synthesized and the efficiency of Mn(III), Ti(IV),Co(II) and Co(III) type catalysts were examined in the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene and α
methylstyrene, the trimethylsilylcyanation of benzaldehyde, the borohydride reduction of aromatic ketonesand asymmetric hydrolysis of epoxides to diols, respectively. A very high level of enantioselectivity wasattainable over the unsymmetrical chiral salen complexes prepared mainly from salicylaldehyde and 2