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(ebook-pdf) - Mathematics - Alder - Multivariate Calculus

# (ebook-pdf) - Mathematics - Alder - Multivariate Calculus

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05/09/2014

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2C2 Multivariate Calculus
Michael D. AlderNovember 13, 2002

2

Contents
1 Introduction 52 Optimisation 7
2.1 The Second Derivative Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3 Constrained Optimisation 15
3.1 Lagrangian Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4 Fields and Forms 23
4.1 Denitions Galore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.2 Integrating 1-forms (vector ﬁelds) over curves. . . . . . . . . . 304.3 Independence of Parametrisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.4 Conservative Fields/Exact Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.5 Closed Loops and Conservatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
5 Greens Theorem 47
5.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.1.1 Functions as transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.1.2 Change of Variables in Integration . . . . . . . . . . . 505.1.3 Spin Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.2 Green’s Theorem (Classical Version) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553