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2075035 Lecture Notes Platos Republic

2075035 Lecture Notes Platos Republic

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Andrew Lee- Political Philosophy NotesPage 1 of 5, Plato’s Republic
1/26/04- Book 1
 
Socrates- Defender of Justice (creates a best possible society)
 
Glaucon/Adeimantus= Thrasymachus work (Book 2)
 
1
st
position of Justice- Cephalus, traditional view with rules, paying debts, etc. Piety & Justice,related together. Socrates refutes example with question of means and greater harms. Not ruling,but consequences
Doing good to your friends.
 
2
nd
Position of Justice= Doing good to your friends and harm to your enemies.” (Loyalty vs.Traitors) A/T:1)
 
Medicine (Owed to each), when is justice useful? War?2)
 
Justice= useless things3)
 
Justice= stealing for friendsConclusion- “Good to friends, harms to no one.”
 
3
rd
position on Justice- “Justice is the advantage of the stronger.”1)
 
Tyranny, Democracy, Aristocracy (One, few, many)2)
 
Advantage of the whole?/ Advantage of the self?
 
A/T Polemarchus1)
 
Refutation turns on drawing an implicit comparison w/ arts, e.g. Piloting, etc. Art= orderedbody of knowledge (teachable). Examples of knowledge, “oist, completely outrageous, truth,and appropriateness2)
 
What is good? Really is good.3)
 
Who are our friends?- Not harm to anyone, harm to bad to injustice.4)
 
Few or many promoting whole or self?1/28/04- Book I
 
Socrates- Rule
good of the whole
 
?- Socratic Paradox- consistency/coherency
 
Concedes to Justice in Socratic sense
 
Justice= schmooze who plays by rules
 
Art= contrary to the Art itself 
 
True ruler ~rule, paid
 
Most decent rulers=
Penalty of worse rulers1/30/04- Book I
 
Political Philosophy- A Knowledge that goes beyond the conflicting opinions and ties that to thepolitical.
 
1
st
impulse of philosophy is to be dismissive of the poltical.
 
The Republic examines our conflicting interpretations/views of justice.
 
Mere existence of conflicting opinions odes not indicate that there is no truth.
 
Plato doesn’t write treatises of dialogue
 
Socrates- ironical (questionable characters) interpret the dialogues as dramatic works. Plato as awriter talking about writing- it shold ll have meaning; each part essential as he tries to conveysomething.
 
He begins by creating a setting prayer: Religious reasons, seeing, knowing, learning: Theoreticalreason
why he is going to town.
 
The city of Athens is sponsoring the public event-1)
 
Religious observance is part of politics for the Greeks2)
 
Modern liberal political renounces theocracy in any form.3)
 
Two-fold observance: he I going down to pray and observe his duty of citizenship
 
Andrew Lee- Political Philosophy NotesPage 2 of 5, Plato’s Republic
4)
 
Not an Enlightenment thinker as he thinks there is an underlying problem of seeking the truth(much more complicated)
 
Polemarchus- war leader (leader in war)1)
 
Tyranny- duality of life2)
 
Force and persuasion (which includes reasoning) are two ways to influence people3)
 
Clearest example (archetypical) of force is war, How can it be that you have right and reasonon your side, but you cannot prevail?Cephalus: Middle-aged, nearing the peak of his rational powers, domestic religious sacrifices occurring.
 
There is a sense that the head of the household is the priest of the household.
 
Cephalus is not bothered by being refuted, which is due in part to old age.
 
The discussion between Cephalus an Socrates is somewhat raw, which is representative of thecharacter of Cephalus.
 
Delicate things do not bother them as the first view, e.g. sexual desire, is introduced.
 
Freedom is the waning (absence) of such desire points toward an important questions: what isfreedom? Is following one’s desire really related to freedom? Is following one’s desire reallyrelated to freedom, for what if the desire is based upon stupidity, etc.? Thus, wouldn’t it requiresome form of reason.
 
Cephalus inherited most of his money, for which Socrates compliments him as not being anobnoxious SOB like those that make their own money. (They are overly attached to their $.)
 
Suggests fundamental idea: What’s good for us
there is an element about us that is attached tosomething that will get in the way for what is good for us.2/2/04- Mid-Term: February 16
 
Education of the Soldier Class
 
Education of the soldier class- Book IV begins and ends (Noble lie) at the end. Early education,soldier class
power, rule exploitatively, expropriations, gen. plunder. Citizens- Soldiers ~undercontrol.
 
Epitome- Small Greek Polis ~ American
 
Gods aim at the good/ ~bad/ Achilles- view disgrace worse than death
 
Telling the truth vs. lying. Ruler when necessary, noble lie.1)
 
Music- philosophic2)
 
Gymnastics- spiritual
 
Education: Pre-rhetoric, Human soul (Philosophic dogs), Music prepares
 
Rulers: Justice- Artisans vs. Soldiers-
 
Reliably and solidarity, Choose rulers, nobly born lie- citizens born from the earth, oughtto defend it.-
 
Natural division of the city2/4/04- Mid-Term
 
Intermediate questions: What is Thrasymachus’s definition: Book I?Book II: Glaucon’s view as a challenge to Socrates?Philosophic dogs?Chief feature of the education of soldiers?Line of argument against Polemarchus?Noble lie?
 
Houses and barracks1)
 
Soldiers ~ money-makers, own personal needs2)
 
Houses of soldiers ~ money-making3)
 
Ruling class ~ gold/silver= pursuit of the precise sense
 
Andrew Lee- Political Philosophy NotesPage 3 of 5, Plato’s Republic
4)
 
Pursuit of the whole5)
 
Satisfy Adeimantus
 
Wealthy vs. poverty, wealthy vs. religious
 
Each pursue art.
$ can corrupt a person.
 
Wealth in foreign policy. A/T- 1) Many more powers. Allies w/o spoils.
 
A/T Domestic: 2) Maximal independence to the good of the whole.
 
Parts of the soul and parts of the city1)
 
Wisdom2)
 
Courage3)
 
Moderation4)
 
Justice5)
 
Maybe Piety.
 
Name 3, leaves Justice in order to figure it out.1)
 
Wisdom- Knowledge, hopefully rulers.2)
 
Courage- Soldier class.3)
 
Moderation- Runs through the whole self (soul) has parts, moderation, self-control. Usurpcontrol. Ought to rule, rebellion of those parts. Ordering reasonable commands overmultifarious whole.4)
 
Justice- One man, one art. Nature and endowments to rulers. Becomes the synthesis.2/6/04- Book V
 
Philosopher-King (Glaucon/Adeimantus)
 
Polemarchus: First-mover, digression/completion, rulers: women & children“Things belong to friends, share things in common.”
 
Really has been chosen: ordering of the city.
 
Modern Cartesian approach [Mind/Body] vs. [Soul/Body]
 
Materialists- Epicurean & Body/Soul1.
 
Virtues between Justice & Moderation, covered by conception of the soul? THINK aboutthese.2.
 
~Realm of actions?- good ordering of the soul? THINK about these.
 
Book V splits:1.
 
Women
Equal treatment2.
 
Family (procreation, children)
family
 
Only with soldier-ruler class. Indicates:1)
 
Tough matter to discuss. Give me a break, says Socrates.2)
 
Going to be. How do you get the best? Eugenics (Good births). Breed the best w/ the best.-
 
Sacred lotteries which are rigged. Blame the lottery. Shows that ppl will ~obey theirrulers
~permanent unions, ~natural offspring, ~competition
 
Unity
same things as good. Privacy/Private interests
Problems
 
Is it possible?- Philosophers rule, in accordance w/ nation.2/9/04- Book V, Book VI “in the precise sense”1)
 
What is philosophy?2)
 
How, in fact, do philosophers relate to the political community?3)
 
How, in the best city, should philosophers relate to the city?4)
 
How should this best city go about educating the populace?
 
Allegories: Ship, Cave, Sun
 
Philosophers
rule (possibilities)1)
 
Philosophers
rule, philosophers
on willing & able to rule

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