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88324 - X.Chen -Note Frequency Response2

# 88324 - X.Chen -Note Frequency Response2

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10/24/2012

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Control System Design by Frequency Response
What we want to do:
Design control systems to achieve satisfactory closed-loop systemperformance based on the information of the frequency response of the plant
.I.
Relation between the Closed-loop System Performance and the Frequency Responses
Remember that the system performance is de
ned on the step response of an under-damped(second-order) system(for relative stability) and the type of the open-loop system(for trackingaccuracy). For example, we have the following formulas
t
r
=1
ω
d
tan
1

1
ζ
2
ζ
=
π
tan
1
√
1
ζ
2
ζ
ω
d
,
ω
d
=
ω
n

1
ζ
2
,
p
=
e
ζ
√
1
ζ
2
π
, t
s
= 41
ζω
n
= 4
T,
We see that
ζ
and
ω
n
play important roles in determining the system performance.We shall be interested in the relation between the closed-loop system performance(hence
ζ
and
ω
n
) and the frequency responses of both the open-loop system and the closed-loop system showninFigure 1:Clearly, the open-loop frequency response is determined by
ω
2
n
s
(
s
+ 2
ζω
n
)
ω
2
n
j
ω
(
j
ω
+ 2
ζω
n
)
,
and the closed-loop frequency response is determined by
ω
2
n
s
2
+ 2
ζω
n
s
+
ω
2
n
1
1
ω
2
ω
2
n
+
j
2
ζ
ωω
n
=
(
ω
)
e
j
Φ
,
52

where
(
ω
) =1

1
ω
2
ω
2
n
2
+
2
ζ
ωω
n
2
,
Φ
=
tan
1
2
ζ
ωω
n
1
ωω
n
2
.
1.
Relation between the closed-loop system performance and the closed-loop fre-quency response
1). Resonant peak magnitude
r
and damping ratio
ζ
:Recall that for 0
ζ
0
.
707, we have the
resonant peak magnitude
r
for
(
ω
) at the
resonant frequency
ω
r
ω
r
=
ω
r
=
ω
n

1
2
ζ
2
,
r
=12
ζ

1
ζ
2
.
It will be convenient to express
ζ
= sin
θ
for some 0
θ
45
as shown inFigure 2:.Then we have
ω
r
=
ω
n
√
cos2
θ
,
r
=1sin2
θ
.
Since
r
is related to the damping ratio
ζ
, clearly, it gives an indication of the relativestability of the system. For example, a large
r
corresponds to a small
ζ
(See Figure 3). Itis noted that a large
r
also corresponds to a large
p
.2). Bandwidth
ω
b
and
ω
n
,
ζ
:The bandwidth
ω
b
of a system is de
ned by
(
ω
b
) =
√
22
(0)(See Figure 4).For a second-order system, since
(0) = 1, we have
(
ω
b
) =
√
22
20log
(
ω
b
) = 20log0
.
707 =
3
dB.
It is easy to solve
ω
b
as
ω
b
=
ω
n
[1
2
ζ
2
+

2
4
ζ
2
(1
ζ
2
)]
1
/
2
.53

Figure 3:Figure 4:54