Ethology is the study of the function and evolution of an animal's behaviour in its naturalenvironment.
The horse (
Equus ferus caballus
) is a hoofed (ungulate) mammal,a subspecies of one of seven
extant species of the familyEquidae.The horse hasevolvedover the past 45 to 55 million years
from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toedanimal of today. Humans began todomesticate horses around 4000 BCE, and their domestication is believed to have beenwidespread by 3000 BCE; by 2000 BCE the use of domesticated horses had spread throughouttheEurasiancontinent. Although most horses today are domesticated, there are stillendangered populations of thePrzewalski's Horse,the only remaining truewild horse,as well
as more commonferal horseswhich live in the wild but are descended from domesticatedancestors.Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective thathorsesarepreyanimals with a
well-developedfight-or-flightinstinct. Their first response to a threat is to flee, although theyare known to stand their ground and defend themselves or their offspring in cases where flightis untenable, such as when a foal would be threatened.
The individual basic stance towards continuing changes and challenges in its enviorment.According to J. Warren Evans there are six basic temperament types. He defines them as quiet,interested, nervous, extremely nervous, stubborn and treacherous.Following factor effect the temperament of horse,Genetic,Enviorment,Training,Rider
This horse is commonly referred to as bomb-proof by owners and a packer by ridinginstructors for his unreactive nature. He will tolerate almost anything, from a fluttering flag to anuncoordinated rider with inexperienced hands. This type can generally be trusted to behavesafely and to build the confidence of beginner riders, while a more advanced rider might considerhim too dull.
horses are great for riders with a little training and experience. In well-trained hands,these horses pay attention to the rider's aids but aren't upset by them. While they are aware of their environment and respond to things going on around them, it's unusual for them to react withfight-or-flight behavior. As long as this horse is handled with consideration and sensitivity, riderswill seldom go wrong with this sort. Many of the horses you see collecting ribbons at local horseshows fit into this category, as they are both animated and dependable.