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The Cold War

The Cold War



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Published by elava

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: elava on Jun 05, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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By Diane Chenaouy 6FRC  2008 
PlanIntroduction: p.1The tensions growth: p3The two axes: p4First Crisis: p8Pacific Coexistence and new crisis: p11Conflicts and USSR repression: p14The Détente (1963-1979): p 15The second cold War (1975 -1985): p17The End of the Soviet Bloc: p 19Conclusion: p.21
IntroductionThe « cold war » is the name of the tensed period between the two greatest powers inthe world between the end of the Second World War and the end the 1980s.In diplomatic terms there are three types of war:
Cold War: it’s especially use to describe the relationship between the USA andthe USSR: they never directly fought each other, but they fight by theintermediary of poorer countries under their influence.
 Warm War : The countries negotiate, there is still a chance that war doesn’t occur, but armies, navies etc are mobilised and war plans are already prepared.
Hot War: This is the warfare, the armies are fighting.Those two powers were the USA and its allies against USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and its allies. It caused the division of the World with those two axes,and during half the 20
century, many wars occurred in the Third World countries: USSR and the USA did not want to fight because it would be a nuclear war and they feared theconsequences of such a war. However the Cold War is called the Third World War: it’s a  word play because it can be understood as the War in the Third World because of the several wars like the Korean War, the Vietnamese War, Hungary, and even the one in Afghanistan.It created too many crisis which nearly brought up a real war like the Cuban Missile Crisisor the Berlin Wall. It can be understood too like the third of the World Wars: if all the victims of the wars between the states influenced by one of the two axes are counted, it’s thesecond war that caused the most casualties.
 Map 1: A divided world 
It was characterised by an ideological confrontation between the bolshevism and thecapitalism, which are completely antagonist. The USSR and the USA were allied during theSecond World War against the Nazism and Germany under Hitler, that explains why there were confronted to territories problems: where the USSR had win against the Nazis, it couldbe occupied by it and the USSR could have an influence, but it annoyed the USA: they considered the communism as the evil.They feared each other: in one side the Soviets had an enormous military force andlots of territories and allies, moreover they had to a considerable political prestige; in theother side the USA had showed in the end of the Second World War they had the nuclearbomb and how destructive it was, and they were the richest state in the world.The first offensive act of the Cold War was initiated by Stalin. During the Yalta Conference (February 1945), he agreed that the countries under the soviet influence couldhave free elections at the end of the war. However, he took advantage of his important military forces and converted them by force to communist government. The USA felt threatened: if the USSR could convert the East Europe countries to communism, they coulddo the same in the West. The USA needed the West Europe to be “safe”, because it was theirmain source of trade. The USSR had been much weakened during the war, so it looked toreinforce itself by using the power of its neighbours. It’s how the
iron curtain
appearedtrough the Europe.
Global Point of View:The sensitive areas during the Cold War  Map 2 

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