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A History of Science (Volume 3)

A History of Science (Volume 3)

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Ivan on Jun 04, 2010
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10/27/2011

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A HISTORY OF SCIENCE
BY HENRY SMITH WILLIAMS, M.D., LL.D.ASSISTED BY EDWARD H. WILLIAMS, M.D.
 
IN FIVE VOLUMESVOLUME III.
 
MODERN DEVELOPMENT OF THEPHYSICAL SCIENCES
 
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History of Science
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CONTENTSBOOK IIICHAPTER I. THE SUCCESSORS OF NEWTON IN ASTRONOMYThe work of Johannes Hevelius--Halley and Hevelius--Halley'sobservation of the transit of Mercury, and his methodof determining the parallax of the planets--Halley's observationof meteors--His inability to explain these bodies--The importantwork of James Bradley--Lacaille's measurement of the arc of themeridian--The determination of the question as to the exact shapeof the earth--D'Alembert and his influence upon science--Delambre's History of Astronomy--The astronomical work of Euler.CHAPTER II. THE PROGRESS OF MODERN ASTRONOMYThe work of William Herschel--His discovery of Uranus--Hisdiscovery that the stars are suns--His conceptionof the universe--His deduction that gravitation has causedthe grouping of the heavenly bodies--The nebula, hypothesis,--Immanuel Kant's conception of the formation of theworld--Defects in Kant's conception--Laplace's final solution ofthe problem--His explanation in detail--Change in the mentalattitude of the world since Bruno--Asteroids andsatellites--Discoveries of Olbers1--The mathematical calculationsof Adams and Leverrier--The discovery of the inner ring ofSaturn--Clerk Maxwell's paper on the stability of Saturn'srings--Helmholtz's conception of the action of tidalfriction--Professor G. H. Darwin's estimate of the consequences
 
History of Science
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 of tidal action--Comets and meteors--Bredichin's cometarytheory--The final solution of the structure of comets--Newcomb'sestimate of the amount of cometary dust swept up daily bythe earth--The fixed stars--John Herschel's studiesof double stars--Fraunhofer's perfection of the refractingtelescope--Bessel's measurement of the parallax of astar,--Henderson's measurements--Kirchhoff and Bunsen'sperfection of the spectroscope--Wonderful revelationsof the spectroscope--Lord Kelvin's estimate of the time thatwill be required for the earth to become completely cooled--Alvan Clark's discovery of the companion star of Sirius--The advent of the photographic film in astronomy--Dr.Huggins's studies of nebulae--Sir Norman Lockyer's "cosmogonicguess,"--Croll's pre-nebular theory.CHAPTER III. THE NEW SCIENCE OF PALEONTOLOGYWilliam Smith and fossil shells--His discovery that fossilrocks are arranged in regular systems--Smith's inquiriestaken up by Cuvier--His Ossements Fossiles containing thefirst description of hairy elephant--His contention that fossilsrepresent extinct species only--Dr. Buckland's studiesof English fossil-beds--Charles Lyell combats catastrophism,--Elaboration of his ideas with reference to the rotation ofspecies--The establishment of the doctrine of uniformitarianism,--Darwin's Origin of Species--Fossil man--Dr. Falconer's visit tothe fossil-beds in the valley of the Somme--Investigations ofPrestwich and Sir John Evans--Discovery of the Neanderthal skull,--Cuvier's rejection of human fossils--The finding of prehistoric

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