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Published by Muzamil

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Published by: Muzamil on Jun 04, 2010
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According to Fazio and Olson, (2001). It is difficult to imagine a psychological worldwithout attitudes. One would go about daily life without the ability to think in the terms of ‘good’ and ‘bad’, ‘desirable’ and undesirable’, or ‘approach’ and ‘avoid’. There would be noactivation of positivity or approach tendencies upon encountering objects that would engender  positive outcomes, but, perhaps more severely, there would also be no mental faculty for avoiding negative objects in one’s environment. (Hogg and Cooper, 2003).According to Allport (1935), “A mental and neural state of readiness, organized throughexperience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence on the individual’s response to all objectsand situations with which it is related.” (Bordens and Horowitz, 2001).Attitude is used to describe potential action toward the object with regard only to thequestion whether the potential action will be favorable or unfavorable toward the object.(Albarracin, Johnson and Zanna, 2005).
1.2.1 Types of Attitude
There are two types of attitude, A
Positive Attitude
those who maintain a positiveattitude are often referred to as optimists. The old saying “Every cloud has a silver lining” istheir motto. Because of their positive position toward all aspects of life, the optimists aregenerally successful in their undertakings, because they refuse to let failure stop them. Failure isseen as simply another step in the process of succeeding. A
Negative Attitude
those who havenegative attitudes are pessimists. Their attitude towards learning, relationships, and work buildup barriers to positive events. Pessimists allow even small issues to reinforce their negative
attitude. (Roberts, n.d). This negativity is an obstacle to success. Only by consciously makingthe decision to change one’s attitude, and taking steps to make that change happen, can thisobstacle be overcome (Gracia, n.d. 5 Steps to a Positive Attitude).
1.2.2 Structure Of Attitude
According to Fabrigar, Macdonald, and Wegener, (n.d). Although the term attitudestructure is ever-present in the literature, precise definitions are less common. The concept of structure must begin with one’s conceptualization of attitude. It makes sense to view the attitudeas a type of knowledge structure stored in memory or created at the time of judgment.(Albarracin, Johnson, and Zanna, 2005).In the most general sense, an attitude defines as an evaluation of an object in a positive or negative fashion that includes the three elements of affect, cognitions, and behavior (the“ABCs” of attitudes). (Breckler, 1984; Eagly and Chaiken, 1998; Zimbardo and Leippe, 1991).And how do a person know what people’s attitude are? How they act, and a person can attemptto measure their attitude directly. These three components are following;The
affective component
consists of the person’s emotions and affect toward thestimulus, especially positive or negative evaluations. The
behavioral component
consists of how the person tends to act regarding the stimulus. The
cognitive component
consists of thethoughts the person has about that particular attitude object, including facts, knowledge, and beliefs. (Crites, Fabrigar, and Petty, 1994).
1.2.3 Functions of Attitudes
Attitude are said to sever four basic functions. These different functions are wide – ranging following; The Utilitarian Function of Attitudes
An attitudinal function that severs to alert us to rewarding objects and situations weshould approach, and costly or punishing objects or situations we should avoid. (Gilovich,Keltner, Nisbett, 2005). Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism, which advocates that thoseactions are right which bring about the best overall. (Bentham, n.d.). The Ego-Defensive Function Of Attitudes
In addition to signaling rewards and threats, attitudes also sever an ego-defensivefunction, protecting people from awareness of unpleasant facts, including knowledge of their own unseemly attributes and impulsive. People develop certain attitudes, this reasoning holds,to maintain cherished beliefs about their selves. The influential ego-defensive account of selectattitudes is the terror management theory. This theory argue that to ward off the anxiety we feelwhen contemplating our own demise, we cling to cultural worldview and strongly held valuesout of a belief that by doing so part of us will survive death. To ward off the anxiety we feelwhen contemplating our own demise, we adopt death-denying attitude, motivated by the belief that a part of us will survive death. (Gilovich, Keltner, Nisbett, 2005). The Value-Expressive Function of Attitudes

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