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How to Maintain Attitudes

How to Maintain Attitudes

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Published by Muzamil

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Published by: Muzamil on Jun 04, 2010
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How to maintain a positive attitude:-
Attitude is a choice. It is not something you are born with and is notsomething that comes easy. You have to work at it to stay positive.
The first step in maintaining a positive attitude is having the desire to be positive.Oncethat you have decided that you have the desire to maintain a positive attitude, it is time tomove on to the next step.
Positive attitudes are achieved through a few avenues.(1 - Positive Affirmation (2 - Law of Attraction Now
1) Positive Affirmation
- Positive affirmations program the subconscious mind to attractsuccess and improve your life. Affirmations are positive statements that describe adesired situation, and which are repeated many times, in order to impress thesubconscious mind and trigger it into positive action. In order to ensure the effectivenessof the affirmations, they have to be repeated with attention, conviction, interest anddesire.
2) Law of Attraction
- You get what you think about, whether wanted or unwanted. TheLaw of Attraction is neutral.
Another portion to maintaining a positive attitude is the ability to try. I have never met asuccessful person that was afraid of trying. Failure was noted by Thomas Edison as being1 step closer to success. Think where we would be if he had been negative about all thetimes he failed in making the light bulb.
The last step in maintaining a positive attitude is to surround yourself with positive.There are a ton of books, DVDs, and tapes out on Positive Attitudes, but for the most part, you need to be around people, places, and things that ooze the positive vibes.
How attitudes changes:-
How and why attitudes change or don’t change are both theoretically & practically important. Social psychologists have developed a number of theories toexplain attitude change. Four of the major theoretical approaches are learning theories,consistency theories, and self-perception theories. We also change our attitude by meansof combination (propaganda & persuasion).
1)Learning Theories:-
(Early Learning Theories)This section might more accurately be called
behavioral theories of attitude change.
These theories were also developed during the 1950s and 1960s. During this time,learning theories reflected behavioral psychology. A major commonality of these theorieswas their emphasis on the stimulus characteristics of the communication situation.Staat's (Insko, 1967) work reflected the ideas of classical conditioning, and focusedalmost entirely on the formation of attitudes. Events in the environment create an1
emotional response in an individual. As new stimuli are consistently paired with oldstimuli (events), the new stimuli develop the power to create an emotional response in theindividual (O'Keefe, 1990).Learning theories of attitude change received major emphasis by Hovland and hisassociates in the Yale Communication Research Program (Hovland, Janis & Kelley,1953). They proposed that opinions tended to persist unless the individual underwentsome new learning experience. Persuasive communications that both present a questionand suggest an answer serve as learning experiences. Acceptance of the suggested answer is dependent on the opportunity for mental rehearsal or practice of the attitude response,and on the number of incentives included in the communication. Hovland and hiscolleagues assumed that as people processed persuasive message content, they rehearsedthe message's recommended attitudinal response, as well as their initial attitude. For attitude change to occur, more than rehearsal and practice had to take place. The Yaleresearchers emphasized the role of incentives and the drive - reducing aspects of  persuasive messages as mechanisms for reinforcement, thereby creating acceptance of new beliefs and attitudes.In the Yale model of attitude change emphasis is placed on attention, comprehension, andacceptance. An individual must attend to and comprehend the communication beforeacceptance can occur. It is during the attending and comprehending phases that theindividual has the opportunity to practice the recommended new opinion. Practice alonedoes not lead to acceptance, but when combined with incentives and recommendationsimbedded in the communication, attitude change is likely. Incentives are broadly defined by Hovland et al. (1953). They could be direct financial or physical benefits (e.g., money,improved health), or they could take on more abstract forms such as the knowledge gainfrom persuasive arguments, social acceptance by others who are respected, or self-approval from the feeling that one is correct.Hovland and his associates identified three classes of variables that influenced theeffectiveness of the message: (a) source characteristics, (b) setting characteristics, and (c)communication content elements. Research using the Yale model focuses on variables inone or more of these three classes. Examples include research in communicator credibility (trustworthiness and degree of expertness), fear-arousing appeals, and the placement of persuasive arguments within the communication (Himmelfarb & Eagly,1974; Kiesler et al., 1969; Insko, 1967).A Skinnerian approach (see 2.5) to the study of attitude change was employed by Bem(1967), whose major assumptions reflected the viewpoint that attitudes were learned as aresult of previous experience with the environment. Bem proposed that since the persontrying to change attitudes usually lacked direct knowledge of the internal stimuliavailable to the learner, it was necessary to rely on external cues in order to reward and punish the individual. It was the combination of external cues and observable behaviorsthat produced changes in attitude (Himmelfarb & Eagly, 1974; Kiesler et al., 1969; Insko,1967).Today, few attitude change theorists feel that the early research by Hovland and others2
has direct impact on current procedures (Eagly & Chaiken, 1993). Newer research andtheory building is directed toward approaches that emphasize multiple modes of  processing information. However, these early researchers investigated basic issues, suchas reinforcement, incentives, and drive-reduction constructs, that are related to howmotivational states influence information processing and persuasion. Early-learningtheorists' efforts provided a foundation for more modem process models of attitudechange.
2) Consistency Theory:-
This theory attitude change includes Heider’s balance theory and Festinger cognitive dissonance theory. Common to this is an assumption that people change their attitudes in order to reduce or remove inconsistency between conflicting attitudes and behaviors.
Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance Model:It
has generated most research. Dissonance is said to exist when a person possesses two cognitions that are contradictory. Such dissonance is believed to beuncomfortable and to motivate the person to eliminate the dissonance by changing either the behavior or attitude.Research within the cognitive dissonance framework has focused on theconsequences of decision making and the effects of counter attitudinal advocacy. For example, a smoker who knows that smoking leads to lungs cancer holds contradictorycognitions :(1) I smoke and (2) smoking leads to lungs cancer. The theory predicts thesetwo thoughts will lead to a state of cognitive dissonance. The individual will bemotivated to reduce such dissonance by one of following methods: (1) modifying one or  both cognition, (2) changing the perceived importance of one cognition, (3) addingcognitions (4) denying that the two cognitions are related to each other.
3) Self-Perception:-
this self-perception theory, Dray Bem has proposed a different view of attitudes determining behavior, in many cases determines attitudes. For example, if someone asks you are hungry you probably think that you answer by checking your internal physiological state. But you may often answer by checking external events rather than your physiological state. You may look at your watch to see whether it is time to behungry. Or you eat two sandwiches rather than one and say “I guess I was hungrier than Ithought”. In these cases and many others, you determine your feeling, attitude or beliefs by checking your behavior.Today both theories (dissonance & self-perception) viewed as at least partlycorrect, although applying to different situations. Some research indicates that peoplemay infer their own behavior much as they do for other people’s behavior, so there may be little validity to beliefs about our own thought process.
4) The communicator, the Message and the Audience:-
Research on attitude change focuses on the communicator, message and theaudience. Many variables interact to determine whether or not audience will change itsmind. The effective communicator is credible, trusted, attractive and similar to audience.Under some conditions, the use of fear and other emotional appeal might change3

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