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James Madison

James Madison

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Published by: FactPalooza on Jun 05, 2010
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 James Madison
 James Madison(March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was anAmericanpoliticianandpolitical philosopherwho served as thefourth President of the United States(1809–1817) and is considered one of theFounding Fathers of the United States.
 The "Father of the Constitution," he was the principalauthorof thedocument.
In 1788, he wrote over a third of theFederalist Papers, still the mostinfluential commentary on theConstitution.
 The first president to have served in theUnited States Congress, hewas a leader in the1st United States Congress, drafting many basiclaws, and was responsible for the first ten amendments to theConstitution (said to be based on theVirginia Declaration of Rights)and thus is also known as the "Father of theBill of Rights".
As a political theorist, Madison's most distinctive belief was that thenew republic needed checks and balances to protect individual rightsfrom the tyranny of the majority.
As leader in theHouse of Representatives, Madison worked closelywith PresidentGeorge Washingtonto organize the new federalgovernment.
Breaking with Treasury SecretaryAlexander Hamiltonin 1791, Madisonand Thomas Jeffersonorganized what they called the Republican Party(later called theDemocratic-Republican Party)in opposition to keypolicies of theFederalists, especially the national bank and the Jay  Treaty.
He secretly co-authored, along with Thomas Jefferson, theKentuckyand Virginia Resolutionsin 1798 to protest theAlien and Sedition Acts.
As Jefferson'sSecretary of State(1801–1809), Madison supervisedtheLouisiana Purchase, doubling the nation's size, and sponsored theill-fatedEmbargo Act of 1807.
As president, he led the nation into theWar of 1812againstGreat Britain. During and after the war, Madison reversed many of hispositions.
By 1815, he supported the creation of thesecond National Bank, astrong military, and ahigh tariff to protect the new factories openedduring the war.
From ages 11–16, A young "Jemmy" Madison studied under DonaldRobertson, an instructor at the Innes plantation in King and QueenCounty, Virginia.

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