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Stages of Growth and Development

Stages of Growth and Development

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Published by Janey Cunanan
Prepared by Jane Crisyethlaine T. Cunanan
Reference: Pilliteri, A. (2007). Maternal and child health nursing: Care of the childbearing & childrearing family (5th ed. Vol. 2). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Prepared by Jane Crisyethlaine T. Cunanan
Reference: Pilliteri, A. (2007). Maternal and child health nursing: Care of the childbearing & childrearing family (5th ed. Vol. 2). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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Published by: Janey Cunanan on Jun 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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AGEFREUD’SPsychosexualDevelopmentERIKSON’SPsychosocialDevelopmentPIAGET’SCognitive DevelopmentKOHLBERG’SMoral Development
INFANT(1 mo –1 yr)Oral Stage
-oral stimulation bypacifiers-don’t discouragethumb sucking-best if breastfed-be consistent duringfeeding
Trust vs. Mistrust
-make infant feel secured bytouching, soft sounds andconsistent care.-if needs are not meant, infantmay develop mistrust
Sensorimotor stage
(1 mo – 24 mo)-relate to the world using reflexes-primary schemas (activities r/tchild’s own body-circulatory reaction (repetition of behavior occurs)Eg. Sucking gives pleasure to theinfant, and so repeats it.-secondary schema (activities thatare separate to the child’s body)Eg. When baby hits a mobile, henotices it moved, and so hits itagain.-discovers permanence
Pre-religious Stage
-learns that when they docertain actions, parents giveaffection and approval-development of trust isimportant to have a moralconscience (trust in a spiritualbeing as well as humansaround them) in the future.
TODDLER(1–3 yr)Anal Stage
-achieve bowel andbladder controlwithout knowing itsimportance
Autonomy vs. Shame &doubt
-control of B&B gives childsense of independence-imitates adults-if caregiver do everything forthem, it enforces sense of shame and doubt-if not allowed to do things,child may doubt abilities-“no-no” stage
Pre-operational Thought
(2 – 7yr)-uses symbols to representobjects-difficulty viewing one object asbeing different from another-prelogical reasoning (drawsconclusions on basic facts, Eg.Daddy shaved then went to workyesterday, now Daddy’s shaving,he must be going to work.)
S tage 1 (2 – 3 yr)-punishment-obedienceoriented-develop sense of right andwrong-do good because“mother/father says so” notbecause it is “right”-may not obey other people’srequests
PRESCHOOLER(3–5 yr)Phallic Stage
-fondling his/her owngenitals-infantile masturbation
Initiative vs. Guilt
-learns basic problem solving-give reward for good deeds-when given freedom toinitiate motor play, sense of initiative is reinforced-answer their questions(intellectual initiative)-if made to feel their motoractivity is bad or theirquestions are stupid, childmay develop sense of guilt-if initiative is not develop,child may have limitedbrainstorming and poorproblem solving skills
Intuitive Thought
(substage of Pre-operational)-has centering (looks at objectsand sees only one characteristic,Eg. They noticed a banana wasyellow but not notice it is as long.)-lacks conservation (ability todiscern truth, even physicalproperties change)-lacks reversibility (ability toretrace steps)-influenced by role fantasy (howchildren would like something toturn out)-uses assimilation (taking ininformation and changing it to fit
S tage 2 (4 – 7 yr)-do good out of “self-interest”or a strong spiritual motivation-because of egocentrism, childmay do things for areturn/trade-imitates what they see-cannot judge whether apreviously learned principle of right or wrong can be appliedto this new situation
their existing ideas)-perceives magical thinking(inaminate objects/animals asbeing capable of thought andfeeling)-eventually learns accommodation(change their ideas to fit realityrather that the other way around)-has strong egocentrism(perceives one’s thoughts andneeds are more important thanthose of others)
SCHOOL-AGECHILD(6–12 yr)Latent Stage
-personalitydevelopment isnonactive/ dormant
Industry vs. Inferiority
-wants to do things well-if praised and rewarded forthe finished results, sense of industry grows-if work/effort is notappreciated, child maydevelop sense of inferiority
Concrete Operational Thought
(7 – 12 yr)-discovers concrete solutions toeveryday problems-recognizes cause-effectsrelationship-learns conservation-uses inductive reasoning (specificto general)
Conventional Development:Level II
Stage 3 ( 7-10yr)-engages in actions that are“nice” or “fair” rather thanbecause they are rightStage 4 (10-12yr)-may lie about their actions todisguise their “not nice”behaviors-becomes aware of communitylaws
ADOLESCENT(13–20 yr)Genital Stage
-relates with theopposite sex
Identity vs. Role Confusion
-child must know everythingabout him/herself to achieveidentity-if unsure of what kind of person they are, there is roleconfusion
Formal Operational Thought
(>12 yr)-develops abstract thoughts(thinking in terms of possibility)leaving concrete thoughts (whatalready is)-uses scientific and deductivereasoning (general to specific)
Post-conventional Stage
(>12yr)-they do what they think isright regardless of whetheranyone is watching-can carry out self-caremeasures even when alone-do things because they are“right”Stage 5-follow standards of society forthe common goodStage 6-universal ethical principleoriented
 YOUNGADULT(20–40 yr)Intimacy vs. Isolation
-intimacy is achieved when person is able to relate well with other people-isolation is felt when rejected after offering love/friendship
MIDDLE-AGEDADULTSGenerativity vs. Stagnation
-sense of generativity (are self-confident, able to juggle their various lives)-sense of stagnation (are self-absorbed, devoted to only one role, inability to cope with change)

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