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Published by: Sandeep on Jun 07, 2010
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Microprocessor Interfacing - v1.05 - J R Smith1
1INTRODUCTION2BINARY LOGIC AND ELECTRONICS2.1 From voltages to logic2.2 TRI-STATE logic2.3 Binary inputs and outputs3 BINARY INPUT TRANSDUCERS3.1 Mechanical switches.3.2 Multiplexed inputs3.3 Switch debouncing.3.4 Some other switches3.5 Non-mechanical switches.3.6 Pseudo-binary inputs4 BINARY OUTPUT TRANSDUCERS4.1 Solenoids4.2 Pseudo-binary outputs5 ENCODING INFORMATION BY VARIATIONS WITH TIME5.1 Introduction5.2 Elapsed Time5.3 Frequency Modulation (FM)5.4 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)5.5 Bitstream Modulation (BSM)5.6 Coding5.7Information coding in Biology (not required for exam)6 BASIC ANALOGUE COMPONENTS6.1 Amplifiers6.2 Comparators6.3 Using analogue transducers as binary transducers (not required for exam)7 DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERSION7.1 How many bits?7.2 Bitstream7.3 Binary-weighted resistors7.4 R-2R Ladder8 ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERSION8.1 Parallel or Flash8.2 Successive Aproximation8.3 Integrating8.4 Delta - Sigma
Microprocessor Interfacing - v1.05 - J R Smith29 TRANSDUCERS9.1 TRANSDUCERS FOR TEMPERATURE9.1.1 Thermocouple9.1.2 Thermistor9.1.3 Semiconductor junction9.1.4 Temperature dependent oscillator9.1.5 Resistor9.1.6 Peltier (thermoelectric) module.9.2 TRANSDUCERS FOR LIGHT9.2.1 Light Dependent Resistor (LDR)9.2.2 Photodiode9.2.3 Phototransistor9.2.4 Solar cell9.2.5 Incandescent lamp (Light Emitting Resistor)9.2.6 Light Emitting Diode9.3 TRANSDUCERS FOR SOUND9.3.1. Dynamic microphones9.3.2. Elecret, capacitor and condensor microphones9.3.3 Dynamic Speaker9.3.5 Electrostatic Loudspeaker9.3.6 Magnetostrictive transducer9.4 TRANSDUCERS FOR CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS10 INTERACTION SCHEMES10.1 Programmed interaction or polling10.2 Interrupts10.3 Direct Memory Access (DMA)11 SOME ASPECTS OF COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE11.1 Types of memoryThese notes are written with specific reference to the 'ATOM' microcontroller. Howevermuch of the information is also applicable to the 'BASIC STAMP' microcontroller or othermicrocomputers.Copyright J R Smith 2003
Microprocessor Interfacing - v1.05 - J R Smith3
You should now be familiar with the BASIC MICRO 'ATOM' microcontroller. It is based onthe 16F876 PICMicro MCU.It has 8K of FLASH memory used for storing programs, 384 bytes of RAM for storing thevariables used in programs and 256 bytes of EEPROM that can store data when the power isremoved.What can a device like this do?It turns out that it can do almost anything. However it does have two fundamental limitations- speed and complexity.The internal cycle time (200 ns) and the time taken to execute instructions (of the order of 30 µs) both limit how rapidly the ATOM can respond to external events. This limitation can beovercome for short periods by using external circuitry with a faster response. However forcontinuous operation the speed is ultimately limited by the instruction execution time.Consequently the ATOM is simply too slow for some tasks (e.g. real time, high fidelity, audioprocessing).The limited space available for program and variables also imposes an eventual upper limit onthe complexity of tasks that the ATOM can reasonably handle. However you are unlikely toapproach this limit. I have written large programs (>20 pages of code) that still fit into the 8Kmemory.Physicists are interested in the behaviour of the real world, however the parameters of interestdon't occur in the form of binary signals with voltage levels compatible with the binary logicof microcomputers. Consequently transducers are used to convert various physicalparameters to and from suitable electrical signals.These notes aim to provide an introduction to the• interfacing computers to the real world• some common transducers• various techniques used to convert between analogue and digital variables• techniques for synchronising a microcomputer with real world eventsSuitable circuits and programming examples will be presented wherever possible. They willoften be specifically for the ATOM28, but the basic principles are applicable to mostmicrocomputers or microcontrollers.

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