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Tochen Tribes

Tochen Tribes

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Published by: Enokman on Jun 07, 2010
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TOMBS
which has not
as
yet been explored with any detail
-
is
a
cave sepulchre. The finest example of 
a
system of rock-hewn sepulchres
of 
the type indicated is suppliedby Petra, the
'
City
of
Tombs.
'
There can be seen themost magnificent tombs, series upon series, withsumptuous portals, hewn at almost inaccessible heightsin the perpendicular wall. These tombs, it
is
true,belong allof them
:o
the later period, but thus theybear witness merely
to
the persistent survival of thepractice. If 
no
natxal
rock wall
was
available, thensuch
a
wall was artificially made by excavating fromthe surface downwards in a rocky bed
a
rectangularspace with perpendicular walls. A quite characteristicexample of this kind of burying
-
place istobe seen inthe so-called
'
Sepulchres of the Kings'
at
Jerusalem(fig.
I),
though
these
also belong to the later period
(1st
cent.
A.
D
.).
Here we find
a
great enclosure
(28
x
25.3
metres) excavated to
a
depth of 
8
metres inthe solid rock, and reached from the surface by
a
widestair. The portal
to
the place
of 
graves properly
so
-
called,
is on
the western wall (see below).On the other hand, no example has yet
been
foundin Palestine of the shaft
-
tombs (tombs reached by
a
narrow perpendicular
shaft).l
so
frequently met with inEgypt and
so
characteristic for this branch of architec-ture there. Yet it
does
not follow,
o
course, that thistype of tomb was wholly unknown in Palestine in theolden time.
As
regards the form of sepulchre proper in Palestine,thePhcenician type is closely followed. The extant
4.
Form
examples fall into four classes
:
(
I
)
Pigeon-
of
tombs.
hole tombs, usually called
kikim,~
rect-angular recesses driven into the wall
at
rightangles to the face, arid measuring
about
ft. in lengthby
I*
ft.
in breadth and depth. Into these the body
was
thrust lengthways.
(2
Sunken tombs which like
F
I
G
.
pl plan
of the tombs
of 
the kings.
our
modem graves were hewn out on the upper surface
of 
the rock and closed with
a
flat stone.
(3)
Shelf tombs, that is to say benches
or
shelves
on
which thebodies were laid. These shelves either
ran
at
a
heightof about
2
ft. round one
or
more walls of 
a
sepulchralchamber,
or
else were hewn lengthways
as
niches in therock wall
(about
16
ft. square,
and
o
the lengthrequired for the body)
;
in the latter case they were
as
a
rule provided with an arch above.
(4)
Trough tombs,
1
[Two examples of the shaft
-
type, however, have been foundat
Tell
ej
-
Judeideh.
A
cylindrical shaft over
z
metres deep ishollowed in the rock, and at the bottom
a
small
doorway leads
to
an irregular chamber about
7.80
metres by
1.50
(Rlks
andMacalister,
PEF 
Exca:uationc,
r898-1go0,
p.
199f:
(I~o?).]
[2
With the post
-
biblical
D'!iS
(Dalman
D'?El),
are connected
the
i*n~>
and
iqnn3
of Nahatean and Palmyrene
inscr.
respec
-
tively; ultimately the word seems to come from the
 Ass.
kimah&u.
For
a discussion of other Nabatean terms, see De
Vogiie,
'Notes
d'kpigraphie arame'enne,'
117j
fi,
1.
 As.
(extrait),
1896.1
TOMBS
troughs hewn out
of 
the perpendicular rock-wall,
I
5
ft.wide and of the length of the body, some
21
ff.
abovethe level of the floor. These also are invariably arched.They thus represent
a
combinationof the shelf tombwith the sunken tomb
:
a
shelf tomb is hewn
into
therock-wall and in this shelf 
a
sunken tomb
or
mouldlike
a
coffin is hollowed out.The observed departures from these four types
are
unimportant and in
no
case alter the fundamental typebut relate principally to the measurements.
In
the
KihRim
double resting-places are
met
with, that
is
tosay,
Rihim
of twice the ordinary width in which two bodiescould be laid side by side; down the middle runs
a
little channel
-
like hollow about
a
handbreadth wideseparating the two
restir~g-places
(see fig.
I
)
;
there areinstances also
o
double benches for the reception of two bodies, though these are
o
rarer occurrence (seefig.
I
H).
In the trough
-
tomb class an interesting peculiarity
is
seen ina tomb near
Haifa
Here the trough
-
tombs are not, as isusually
the caie
like shelf 
-
tombs hewn out lengthways alongthe wall, hut
lik;
KJKim,
at
right
angles to its surface. In thiscase also double tombs occur corresponding to the double
kakjm
mentioned above
;
a narrow dit nearly
 I 
foot wide separates theindividual resting
-
places. Each pair of these is connectedbreadthways by
a
semicircular arch.
The tombs jnst described were not simply hewn
out
of the rock without further preparation. Even when it
6.
Form
Of
sepulchralchambers
and
groups
of 
chambers.
-.
was but one grave for a single personthat was in question, it was
not
thepractice to excavate in the rock-surface
a
hollow like the graves we use; by pre-ference
a
little subterranean chamber
was
made. and the mave was made in thefloor or in the wall
as
the case might be. At first sightwe might feel inclined
to
connect this general preferencefor subterranean sepulchral chambers with the originalcustom of using caves
for
purposes
o
burial. Therewas yet another element, however, which contributed tothis result, namely the desire to keep the dead membersof 
a
family,
or
clan, still united even in the grave. Insuch
a
sepulchral chamber many graves of all thedifferent kinds could easily be brought together.Subse-quent stages were the adding
of 
a
second chamber tothe first, or several chambers might
be
connected bypassages,
or
great subterranean constructions made.Thus the places of burial fall into three distinct classes
:
(
I
)
simple chambers for one body only which is
buried
in
a
sunken tomb inthe floor. These burial chambersaxe frequently unclosed.
(2
Single chambers withseveral graves of the different sorts mentioned,
prrrticu-larly
k8kim
and shelf tombs.
(3)
Larger complexesembracing several chambers. Examples of all threeclasses are numerous in Palestine.
To
the first class,that of single chambers with only one grave, belong
F
I
G
Z.-Plan
of the tombs of the judges.
many of the tombs
on
the southern slope of the Valleyof Hinnom.
In
agreement with the purpose they serve,these chambers are for the most part rather small.Amongst these,
on
the side
of 
the Hill of Evil Counsel,are also some belonging
to
the second class
:
singlechambers with several graves.
For
a
fuller account of these see Tobler
(of.
cit.,
I
I
below). Very instructiveexamples
o
the third class of larger complexes arefound in the so
-
called Sepulchres of the Kings and
of 
the Judges in Jerusalem. Both examples indeed are of late date, but the Hellenistic influence
(so
far
as
it

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