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Composite Fabrication by Filament Winding

Composite Fabrication by Filament Winding

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Published by: AVI_ROHINI on Jun 08, 2010
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Composite Fabrication By Filament Winding
Technological advances in various sectors have created the demandfor newer materials, which can perform in stringent conditions of high pressureand temperature, highly corrosive environment, with high strengthrequirement. Conventional materials failed to service these conditions. Thishas triggered the need to develop engineered materials to cater customisedneeds. Industries have recognised the ability of composite materials toproduce high quality, durable, cost –effective products.Filament winding is a major manufacturing process in the fabrication of high performance composites, allowing the process of filament winding to bethe most efficient and least expensive method to construct the basicinfrastructure system of 21
AEC/MECH/2009 1
 Composite Fabrication By FilamentWinding
A ‘composite ‘is a heterogeneous combination of two or more materialsdiffering in form or composition on macro scale. The combination results inmaterial that maximises specific performance properties. The constituents donot dissolve or merge completely and therefore exhibit an interface betweenone another. In this form both reinforcing agents and matrix retain their physical and chemical identities, while producing a combination of propertiesthat cannot be achieved with either of the constituents acting alone.Composites are classified based on type of matrix used –polymer, metallicand ceramic.The unique properties of composites are:
Composite materials are 30-40% lighter than aluminium structuresdesigned for the same functional requirements.
Pipes and cylinders made up of composites have lower weightcompared to the metallic ones and can be withstand high internalpressure.
Composites have excellent corrosion resistance.
Appropriate inhibitors and additives can impart good fire retardation.properties to composite.
Improved torsional stiffness and impact resistance properties.
Higher fatigue endurance limit.
Design flexibility- composites can be tailored to meet performanceneeds and complex design requirement.
Composites exhibit higher internal damping capacity.9.Composites have better dimensional stability.10.Improved appearance.
Composite applications have revolutionised all industries including,
1. Aerospace 4. Chemicals2. Pharmaceutical 5. Marine3. Electrical 6. Transportation
 Composite Fabrication By FilamentWinding
3. Composite Manufacuring Techniques
There are variety of processing techniques for fabricating compositeparts and structures. They are resin transfer moulding, pultrusion and filamentwinding. Some of them are explained bellow in brief:
3.1. Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM):
This is a low pressure, closed mould, semi-mechanised process. InRTM several layers of dry continues strand mat, woven roving or cloth areplaced in the bottom half of a two part closed mould, and a low viscositycatalysed liquid resin is injected under pressure into the mould cavity, which issubsequently cured. Instead of using flat reinforcing layers, such as strandmat, the starting material in RTM can be a ‘preform‘that already has a shapeof desired product. The potential advantages of RTM can be summarised as:
Manufacture of large complex structures.
Good surface finish.
Design flexibility.
Capability of integrating large number of components into onepart.
RTM process is mainly used for moulding parts like,1.Cabinet walls2.Chairs or bench sheets3.Hoppers4.Water tanks5.Bath tubs6.Boat hulls

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