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History of Israel

History of Israel

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Published by Aamir Hussain

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Published by: Aamir Hussain on Jun 08, 2010
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History of Israel
The State of Israel (Hebrew:   ,
 Medinat Yisrael 
)
was established on May 14, 1948after nearly two thousand years of Jewish dispersal, and after 55 years of efforts to create aJewish homeland (Zionism
).
The 62 years since Israeli independence have been marked byconflict with neighbouring Arab states and the Palestinian-Arabs
.
There have also been manynegotiations, and peace has been achieved with Egypt and Jordan
.
Israel's democracy hassurvived under difficult circumstances and the country has prospered despite war, ethno-religiousconflict, boycotts, mass immigration and terror attacks
.
Since the creation of the Jewish state, the percentage of the world's Jews in Israel has grown; at present, about 40% of the world's Jewish population are Israeli residents
.
[
1]
 Palestine Post headline announcing declaration of independence
.
[
2]
 
C
ontents
1 Introduction: Jewish history in Israel1
.
1 Early Iron Age1
.
2 Babylonian, Persian and Greek rule (586 BCE²140 BCE
)
 1
.3
Hasmonean kingdom (140 BCE²64 BCE
)
 1
.
4 Roman rule and the dispersal of the Jews (64 BCE²6
3
0 CE
)
 1
.
4
.
1 Pagan Rome (64 BCE² 
33
0 CE
)
 1
.
4
.
2 Christian Roman (Byzantine
)
rule (
33
0²6
3
1
)
 1
.
5 Arab rule (6
3
6²1099
)
 1
.
6 Crusader rule (1099²1291
)
 1
.7
Mamluk (Egyptian-Islamic
)
rule (1260²151
7)
 1
.
8 Ottoman (Turkish - Islamic
)
rule (151
7
 ²191
7)
 2 The Zionist Movement2
.
1 189
7
 ²191
7
: The Zionist Revolution
3
191
7
 ²1948: British rule: the Jewish national home
3.
1 The League of Nations Mandate
3.
2 The growth of Arab resistance and restrictions on Jewish migration
3.3
The 19
3
9 White Paper and the Holocaust
3.
4 1945±194
7
: Jewish uprising against British rule
3.
5 The United Nations decides to partition Palestine
 
 
3.
6 The War of Independence: The civil war phase4 State of Israel (1948²present
)
 4
.
1 The State of Israel declared4
.
1
.
1 The Arab Invasion4
.
1
.
2 Armistice4
.
2 Labour Party rule 1948²19
77
 4
.
2
.
1 1948²195
3
: Ben Gurion and mass immigration4
.
2
.
2 1954²1955: Moshe Sharett and the Lavon Affair 4
.
2
.3
1955²196
3
: Ben-Gurion II: Sinai Campaign & Eichmann Trial4
.
2
.
4 196
3
 ²1969: Levi Eshkol and the Six-Day War 4
.
2
.
5 1969²19
7
5: Golda Meir and Yom Kippur War 4
.
2
.
6 19
7
5²19
7
6: Yitzhak Rabin I: Operation Entebbe, start of Religious Settlements4
.3
Likud domination 19
77
 ±19924
.3.
1 19
77
 ²1981: Menachem Begin I: the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty4
.3.
2 1981²198
3
: Begin II: the First Lebanon War 4
.3.3
1984²1988: Yitzhak Shamir/Shimon Peres rotation government and first Intifada4
.3.
4 1988²1992: Shamir II: the Gulf War and Soviet immigration4
.
4 1992²1995: Rabin II: Oslo peace talks4
.
5 Direct elections for the prime minister 1992²20054
.
5
.
1 1996²1999: Binyamin Netanyahu - the peace process slows4
.
5
.
2 1999²2001: Ehud Barak and withdrawal from South Lebanon4
.
5
.3
2001²2006: Ariel Sharon and withdrawal from Gaza and the Northern West Bank 4
.
6 2006²2009: Ehud Olmert and growing Islamist confrontation4
.7
2009²present: Netanyahu II5 See also6 Further reading6
.
1 Historiography
7
References
Introduction: Jewish history in Israel
ee also: History of ancient Israel and Judah, Jewish history, Land of Israel, History of the Jewsin the Land of Israel, and History of the
outhern Levant 
 
Tribes of IsraelThe Tribes
 ReubenSimeonLeviJudahDan Naphtali
 
GadAsher 
 
 
Issachar ZebulunJoseph
 
ManassehEphraim
 
Benjamin
 
elated topics
 IsraelitesTribal allotmentsTen Lost Tribes
v
d
e
In the Book of Genesis, Abraham's grandson is Jacob, whose name is changed to
Israel
and hastwelve sons who father twelve tribes known as the "children of Israel
.
" Judah is the fourth of Israel's sons
.
 Evidence of a Jewish presence in Israel dates back over 
3
,000 years, to the formation of thereligion and people
.
The name "Jews" derives from their origin in the Kingdom of Judah, an areafrom which the Jewish people have been repeatedly dispersed and repopulated over their history
.
 
Early Iron Age
ee also: History of ancient Israel and Judah
The Israelites are generally thought
[
clarification needed 
]
to have come into existence during the EarlyIron Age, developing an independent kingdom around 1020 BCE
.
The Hebrew Bible describesconstant warfare with the Philistines, whose capital was Gaza, and a single temple in Jerusalem
.
 Around 950 BCE, the kingdom split into a southern Kingdom of Judah and a northern Kingdomof Israel
.
 Biblical and Assyrian records describe how the Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by Assyrianking Tiglath-Pileser III around
7
20 BCE and its people sent into exile, becoming the Lost Tribesof Israel
.
The Samaritans claim to be descended from survivors of this destruction
.
The Philistinekingdom was also destroyed
.
 The Bible describes how a later Assyrian King, Sennacherib, tried and failed to conquer Judah(Assyrian records say he punished them and left
).
Assyria was eventually conquered by Babylonin 612 BCE
.
 
B
abylonian, Persian and Greek rule (586
BC
E²140
BC
E)
In 586 BCE King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered the Kingdom of Judah and exiledthe population to Babylon
.
According to the Bible, also destroyed Solomon's Temple
.
 
ee also: The Return to Zion and Yehud coinage
In 5
3
8 BCE Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon and issued a proclamation grantingsubjugated nations (including the people of Judah
)
their freedom
.
The Bible describes how50,000 Judeans, led by Zerubabel returned and rebuilt the temple
.
A second group of 5000, led by Ezra and Nehemiah, returned to Judea in 456 BCE
.
According to the Bible, non-Jews tried to prevent the return and wrote to Cyrus
.
 In
333
BCE Alexander the Great defeated Persia and conquered Judea and sometime thereafter,the first translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Septuagint
)
was begun in Alexandria
.
After Alexander's death, his generals fought over the territory he had conquered
.
Israel became the

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