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A Report on Cultural Diversity (1)

A Report on Cultural Diversity (1)

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A Report on Cultural Diversity(MAN 770  Clinical Supervision & Management)by: Therese Rachel Mae A. TatingGeneral Objective:At the end of the lecture-discussion, the students will be able to obtain facts about culturaldiversity and its implications to nursing care to enhance their knowledge, improve their skills,and influence their attitudes as they deal with people in the multicultural workplace.Specific Objectives:Specifically, they will be able to:1.
 
Define cultural diversity and discuss its importance;2.
 
discuss the implications of cultural diversity to professional practice;3.
 
apply the significant concepts of cultural diversity in their fields of specialization; and4.
 
Express a positive attitude towards the application of cultural diversity.
CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Cultural diversity is the
variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in theworld
as a whole.
In its rich diversity, culture has intrinsic value for development as well associal cohesion and peace.
Cultural diversity is a driving force of development, not only inrespect of economic growth, but also as a means of leading a more fulfilling intellectual,emotional, moral and spiritual life.
 Culture
refers to the common lifestyles, knowledge, beliefs, behavior patterns, attitudes,values, habits, customs, languages, symbols, ritual, ceremonies, and practices that are uniqueto a particular group of people.
y
 
A person is not born with cultural concepts but instead learns them throughsocialization.
y
 
The sharing of common practices provides a group with part of its cultural identity.
y
 
Culture develops in and is communicated by groups of people.
y
 
Adaptation allows cultural groups to adjust to meet environmental changes. Culturechange occurs slowly and in response to the needs of the group.
Related Concepts
y
 
Race  Racial categories are based on specific physical characteristics; Race is genetic inorigin and includes all physical characteristics that are similar among members of the group,such as skin color, bone structure, blood type, hair type, and eye color
y
 
Ethnicity  The sense of identification with a collective cultural group, largely based on thegroups common heritage. Includes language and dialect. Religious practices, literature,music, folklore, political interests, food preferences, and employment patterns. Ethnicityand race may sometimes overlap because the cultural and biological commonalities supportone another.
y
 
B
iracial/multiracial  when an individual crosses two or more racial and cultural groups.
 
y
 
Dominant Group  The group within a country or society that has the most authority tocontrol values and sanctions.
y
 
Minority Group  Most often has some physical or cultural characteristics that identifiesthe people within it as different.
y
 
Discrimination - The differential treatment of individuals or groups based on categories suchas race, ethnicity, gender, social class, or exceptionality, occurs when a person acts onprejudice and denies another person one or more of the fundamental rights.
y
 
Stereotyping  Assuming that all members of a culture, subculture, or ethnic group act alike.
y
 
Cultural Imposition  The belief that everyone should conform to the majority belief system.
y
 
Cultural
B
lindness  The result of ignoring differences and proceeding as though they do notexist.
y
 
Culture Conflict  The state that occurs when people become aware of cultural differences,feel threatened, and respond by ridiculing the beliefs and traditions of others to makethemselves feel more secure.
F
actors Influencing Traditional Beliefs and Practices
y
 
The length of time in a given place
y
 
The size of the ethnic or cultural group with which an individual identifies and interacts.
y
 
Age of the individual. As a general rule, children acculturated more rapidly than adultsor seniors.
y
 
The ability to speak the major language and communicate with members of the majorityculture.
y
 
Economic and education status.
y
 
H
ealth status of family members. If individuals and their families seek health care in thecountry, they begin to learn the system, so to speak.
y
 
Individuals and groups who have distinguishing ethnic characteristics, such as skin color,may be more isolated because of discrimination and thus may retain traditional valuesrelated to health beliefs and behavior.In a multicultural society, nurses are likely to encounter clients from diverse settings. As nurseswe need to develop a cultural insight and a deeper appreciation and respect for the rights of culturally diverse individuals. When cultural beliefs and practices are not appropriatelyidentified, the significance of behavior may confuse the nurse and result in the delivery of inappropriate care.
Madeleine Leininger
defined transcultural nursing as the
humanistic and scientific area of formal study and practice which is focused upon differences and similarities among cultureswith respect to human care, health or well-being), and illness based upon the peoplescultural values, beliefs and practices.
 The ultimate goal of transcultural nursing is to use relevant knowledge to provide culturallyspecific and culturally congruent nursing care to people.Terminologies:
 
y
 
Culture Care = the subjectively and objectively learned and transmitted values, beliefs,and patterned lifeways that assist, support, facilitate or enable an individual or group tomaintain well-being and health, to improve the human condition and lifeway or to dealwith illness, handicaps, or death.
y
 
Culture Care Diversity = the variables and/or differences in the ways that culturesperceive, know, and practice health and nursing care.
y
 
Culture Care Universality = the commodities in the ways that cultures share theperceptions, knowledge and practices related to health and nursing care
y
 
Ethnohistory = past facts, events, instances and experiences of individuals, groups,cultures and institutions that are primarily people-centered and that describe, explainand interpret human lifeways with in a particular culture over periods of time.
y
 
Cultural and Social Structure Dimensions = refers to the dynamic patterns and featuresof interrelated structural and organizational factors of a particular culture, whichincludes religions, kinship, political, economic, educational, technological, culturalvalues, and ethnohistorical factors and how these factors may be interrelated andfunction to influence human behavior in different environmental context.To provide a comprehensive approach to health care nurses must be able to deliver health carethat is:
y
 
Culturally sensitive
- has more to do with personal attitudes and not saying thingsthat might be offensive to someone from a cultural or ethnic background differentfrom the nurse
y
 
Culturally appropriate
- implies that the nurse applies the underlying backgroundknowledge that must be possessed to provide a given client with the best possiblehealth care.
y
 
Culturally competent
- implies that within the delivered care the nurse understandsand attends to the total context of the clients situation and uses a complexcombination of knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Interaction between the nurse andpatient are affected by the particular set of cultural values they bring to theinteraction.*Nurses must avoid
cultural imposition
and
ethnocentrism
.
F
actors to consider in nursing care of culturally diverse groups:
1.
 
L
ack of employment opportunities and finances for health care services.2.
 
Different traditional belief systems as well as different norm and values.3.
 
The lack of cultural sensitivity on the part of social service and health care workers.4.
 
L
ack of bilingual personnel or staff members or the lack of interpreters to assist clientsand providers.5.
 
Rapid changes in existing health care systems where clients are lost in the gapsbetween agencies and services.6.
 
Inconvenient locations or hours that preclude clients from accessing care.7.
 
A lack of understanding, trust, and commitment on the part of health care providers.

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