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Dictionary for the Petroleum Industry.

Dictionary for the Petroleum Industry.

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Published by: Clarissa on Jun 08, 2010
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1AAPG
 
abbr: 
American Association ofPetroleum Geologists.
AAPL
 
abbr: 
American Association ofPetroleum Landmen.
abaft
 
adv: 
1. toward the stem of a ship ormobile offshore drilling rig. 2. behind. 3.farther aft than. See
aft.
abandon
 
v: 
to cease producing oil and gasfrom a well when it becomes unprofitable orto cease further work on a newly drilled wellwhen it proves not to contain profitablequantities of oil or gas. Several steps areinvolved: part of the casing may be removedand salvaged; one or more cement plugsare placed in the borehole to preventmigration of fluids between the differentformations penetrated by the borehole; andthe well is abandoned. In most oil-producingstates, it is necessary to secure permissionfrom official agencies before a well may beabandoned.
abandoned well
 
n: 
a well not in usebecause it was a dry hole originally, orbecause it has ceased to produce. Statutesand regulations in many states require theplugging of abandoned wells to prevent theseepage of oil, gas, or water from onestratum of underlying rock to another.
abandonment
 
n: 
termination of a jurisdictional sale or service. Under Section7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, the FederalEnergy Regulatory Commission mustdetermine in advance that the "present orfuture public convenience and necessity" ordepletion of gas supplies requirestermination.
abandonment pressure
 
n: 
the averagereservoir pressure at which an amount ofgas insufficient to permit continuedeconomic operation of a producing gas wellis expelled.
abd
,
abdn
abbr: 
abandoned;used in drilling reports.
abnormal pressure
n: 
pressure exceedingor falling below the pressure to be expectedat a given depth. Normal pressure increasesapproximately 0.465 pow1ds per squareinch per foot of depth or 10.5 kilopascals permetre of depth. Thus, normal pressure at1,000 feet is 465 pounds per square inch; at1,000 metres it is 10,500 kilopascals. See
pressure gradient.
aboard
 
adv: 
on or in a ship, offshore drillingrig, helicopter, or production platform.
abrasion
n: 
wearing away by friction.
ABS
abbr: 
American Bureau of Shipping.
abscissa
n: 
the horizontal coordinate of apoint in a plane obtained by measuringparallel
to 
the x-axis. Compare
ordinate.
absolute
(abs)
adj: 
independent orunlimited, such as an absolute condition, orcompletely unadulterated, such as alcohol.
absolute density
n: 
the density of a solid orliquid substance at a specified temperature.Sometimes referred
to 
as true density ordensity in vacuo. See
density.
absolute dynamic viscosity
n: 
the force indynes that a stationary flat plate with asurface area of 1 square centimetre exertson a similar parallel plate 1 centimetre awayand moving in its own plane with a velocityof 1 centimetre per second, the spacebetween the plates being filled with theliquid in question. It is a measure of theresistance that the liquid offers
to 
shear.absolute error
n: 
the difference between theresult of a measurement and the true valueof the measured quantity as determined bymeans of a suitable standard device.
absolute humidity
n: 
the amount ofmoisture present in the air. It may beexpressed in milligrams of water per cubicmetre of air. Compare
relative humidity.
absolute kinematic viscosity
n: 
the valueobtained when the absolute dynamicviscosity is divided by the density(expressed in grams per cubic centimetre)of the liquid at the temperature concerned.
absolute mass
n: 
the expression of a fluid'sweight (mass) in terms of its weight in avacuum.
absolute open flow
 
n: 
the maximum flowrate that a well could theoretically deliverwith zero pressure at the face of thereservoir.
absolute ownership
n: 
the theory thatminerals such as oil and gas are fully ownedin place before they are extracted andreduced to possession. Despite this theory,title to oil and gas may be lost by legitimatedrainage and by the rule of capture. Alsocalled ownership in place. See
rule of capture.
absolute permeability
n: 
a measure of theability of a single fluid (such as water, gas,or oil) to flow through a rock formation whenthe formation is totally filled (saturated) withthat fluid. The permeability measure of arock filled with a single fluid is different fromthe permeability measure of the same rockfilled with two or more fluids. Compare
effective permeability, relative permeability.
absolute porosity
n: 
the percentage of thetotal bulk volume of a rock sample that iscomposed of pore spaces or voids. See
porosity.
absolute pressure
n: 
total pressuremeasured from an absolute vacuum. Itequals the sum of the gauge pressure andthe atmospheric pressure. Expressed inpounds per square inch.
absolute temperature scale
n: 
a scale oftemperature measurement in which zerodegrees is absolute zero. On the Rankineabsolute temperature scale, which is basedon degrees Fahrenheit. water freezes at492' and boils at 672". On the Kelvinabsolute temperature scale, which is basedon degrees Celsius, water freezes at 273
°
and boils at 373
°. See
absolute zero.
absolute viscosity
n: 
the property by whicha fluid in motion offers resistance to shearand flow. Usually expressed as newtonseconds/metre.
absolute zero
n: 
a hypothetical temperatureat which there is a total absence of healSince heat is a result of energy caused bymolecular motion, there is no motion ofmolecules with respect to each other atabsolute zero.
absorb
v: 
I. to take in and make part of anexisting whole. 2. to recover liquid hydro-carbons from natural or refinery gas in agas- absorption plant. The wet gas entersthe absorber at the bottom and rises to dietop, encountering a stream of absorption oil(a light oil) travelling downward over bubble-cap trays, valve trays, or sieve trays. Thelight oil removes, or absorbs, the heavierliquid hydrocarbons from the wet gas. See
bubble-cap tray, sieve tray, valve tray.
 
 
Absorbent 2 acidityAbsorbent
n: 
see
absorption oil.
 
absorber
 
:
1.
A vertical, cylindricalvessel that recovers heavierhydorcarbons from a mixture ofpredominantly lighter hydrocarbons.Also called absorption tower.
2.
A vesselin which gas is dehydrated by beingbubbled through glycol. See
absorb.
 
absorber capacity
n: 
the maximumvolume of natural gas that can beprocessed through an absorber at aspecified absorption oil rate, temperature,and pressure without exceeding pressuredrop or any oilier operating limitation.
absorption
n: 
1. the process of suckingup, taking in and making part of anexisting whole. Compare
adsorption.
2.the process in which short waveradiation is retained by regions of theearth.
absorption dynamometer
n: 
a devicethat measures mechanical force. Theenergy measured is absorbed byfrictional or electrical resistance.
absorption gasoline
n: 
the gasolineextracted from natural gas by puttingthe gas into contact with oil in a vesseland subsequently distilling the gasolinefrom the heavier oil.
absorption oil
n: 
a hydrocarbon liquidused to absorb and recover componentsfrom natural gas being processed. Alsocalled wash oil.
absorption plant
n: 
a plant thatprocesses natural gas with absorptionoil.
absorption-refrigeration cycle
n: 
amechanical refrigeration system in whichthe refrigerant is absorbed by a suitableliquid or solid. The most CODlD1onlyused refrigerant is ammonia; the mostcommonly used absorbing medium iswater. Compare
compression- refrigeration cycle.
absorption tower
n: 
see
absorber.
abstract-based title opinion
n: 
a titleopinion based on a complete abstract oftitle and other relevant documents.Compare
stand- up title opinion.
abstract company
n: 
a privatecompany in the business of preparingabstracts of titleand performing related services. Alsocalled abstract plant.
abstract of title
n: 
a collection of all ofthe recorded instruments affecting title toa tract of land. Compare
base abstract.
abstract plant
n: 
see
abstract company.
abyssal
adj: 
of or relating to the bottomwaters of the ocean.
Ac
abbr: 
altocumulus.
AC
abbr: 
alternating current.
accelerated aging test
n: 
a procedurewhereby a product may be subjected tointensified but controlled conditions ofheat, pressure, radiation, or othervariables to produce, in a short time,the effects of long- time storage or useunder normal conditions.
accelerationstress
 
n: 
when a crane is hoisting aload, the additional force the loadimposes on a wire rope or a sling whenthe load's speed increases.
accelerator
n: 
a chemical additive thatreduces the setting time of cement. See
cement, cementing materials.
accelerometer
n: 
an instrument thatdetects changes in motion or measuresacceleration. accessory equipment
n: 
any device that enhances the utility of ameasurement system, includingreadouts, registers, monitors, andliquid- or flow-conditioning equipment.accrete
v: 
to enlarge by the addition ofexternal parts or particles.
accumulate
v: 
to amass or collect.Whenoil and gas migrate into porousformations, the quantity collected iscalled an accumulation.
accumulator
n: 
1. a vessel or tank thatreceives and temporarily stores a liquidused in a continuous process in a gasplant. See
drip accumulator.
2. on adrilling rig, the storage device fornitrogen-pressurised hydraulic fluid,which is used in operating the blow outpreventers. See
blowout preventer control unit.
accumulator bottle
n: 
a bottle-shapedsteel cylinder located in a blowoutpreventer control unit to store nitrogenand hydraulic fluid under pressure(usually at 3,(XK)pounds per squareinch). The fluid is used to actuate theblowout preventer stack.
accuracy
n: 
the ability of a measuringinstrument to indicate values closelyapproximating the true value of thequantity measured.
accuracy curve of a volume meter
n: 
 a plot of meter factor as a function offlow rate used to evaluate the meter'sperformance. See
flow rate, meter factor: 
acetic acid
n: 
an organic acidcompound sometimes used to acidiseoil wells. It is not as corrosive as otheracids used in well treatments. Itschemical formula is C2~O2' orCH3COOH.
acetylene welding
n: 
a method of joining steel components in whichacetylene gas and oxygen are mixed ina torch to attain the high temperaturesnecessary for welding. As an early typeof welding (it was also calledoxyacetylene welding), its primarydisadvantage was the seepage ofmolten weld material onto the interiorsurface of the pipe, often leading tocorrosion problems.
ACGIH
abbr: 
American Conference ofGovernmental and Industrial Hygienists.
acid
n: 
any chemical compound. oneelement of which is hydrogen, thatdissociates in solution to produce freehydrogen ions. For example,hydrochloric acid. HCI, dissociates inwater to produce hydrogen ions, H+,and chloride ions, CI-. This reaction isexpressed chemically as HCI + H+ + CI-. See
ion.
acid brittleness
n: 
see
hydrogen embrinlement.
acid clay
n: 
a naturally occurring claythat,after activation, usually with acid, isused mainly as a decolourant or refiningagent, and sometimes as adesulphuriser, coagulant, or catalyst.
acid fracture
v: 
to part or openfractures in productive hard limestoneformations by using a combination of oiland acid or water and acid under highpressure. See
formation fracturing.
acid gas
n: 
a gas that forms an acidwhen mixed with water. In petroleumproduction and processing, the mostcommon acid gases are hydrogensulphide and carbon dioxide. Bothcause corrosion, and hydrogen sulphideis very poisonous.
acidity
: the quality of being acid.Relative acid strength of a liquid ismeasured by pH. A liquid with a pHbelow 7 is acid. See
pH.

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