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Math Cumulative 2 Review

Math Cumulative 2 Review

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Published by J
for once my diagrams actually showed up properly!
it's a miracle!

I'll upload 'cumulative 3 review' shortly wich adds some things missed in this review, although it removes some stuff as well...
for once my diagrams actually showed up properly!
it's a miracle!

I'll upload 'cumulative 3 review' shortly wich adds some things missed in this review, although it removes some stuff as well...

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Published by: J on Jun 09, 2010
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06/17/2014

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Chapter 1y = af[b(x-h)]+ka
± vertical dilation (x, ay)if 0<a<1  vertical compressionif a>1  vertical expansion
b
± horizontal dilation (
, y)if 0<b<1  horizontal expansionif b>1  horizontal compression
h
± horizontal translation (x+h, y)if h>0  rightif h<0  left
k
± vertical translation (x, y+k)if k>0  upif k<0  down
Reflections
-If a is negative, reflect over x-axis (y valuesbecome opposite) (y=-f(x)) (-y=f(x)) (x, -y)-If b is negative, reflect over y-axis (x valuesbecome opposite) (y=f(-x)) (-x, y)
Inverse
y=f(x)  x=f(y) [f 
-1
(x), reflect over line y=x(swap x & y values) (y, x)to solve interchange x & y in the fn & solvefor y
Reciprocals
y=f(x) 
 


(where y=0 on original graph vertical asymptote(s)) (x,
) (if y is pos, reciprocalalso remains pos; if neg, stays neg) (x-axis:horizontal asymptote) (y=1, y=-1 stay the same
A
bsolute Values
y=|f(x)| (to graph reflect all parts of original graphthat are below the x-axis to above the x-axis; allparts above the x-axis stay the same)y=f(|x|) (to graph first graph y=f(x) then reflect onlythe positive x values over the y-axis, also keep thepoints with a positive x value)
Chapter 4Conversions
n°(

) = mradmrad(

)= n°
S
ector 
A
ngle
a=r ( in rad)
A
ngle Definitions
Standard position ± angle has a vertex on the origin& initial arm on positive x-axis; rotation counter clockwise  angle is positive; rotation clockwise angle is negativeCoterminal angle -
36
0° or 
2radPrincipal angle ± the least of the positive coterminalangles
S
pecial Right ¨s
*factor out coefficient before finding phase shift*y=asin[b(-c)]+d (b=2/per; per=2/ba-amp, b-per, c-ps, d-vd*put calc in RAD mode for q¶s like µcos2¶ or µsec2¶
Chapter 5
ex. find the exact solutions
a) sin =
  =
  =  - -
=

 b) cos =
  =  - -
=

  =  + -
=

 
ex. use graphs to solve
a) sin = 0 = 0, b) cos = 1 = 0c) tan = 0 = 0, 
G
eneral
S
olution
 Add the per to the smallest positive solution
ex. find the general solution of sin = 0 
 = 0, GS:  = n where n is an integer *for 0
<2 cos has 2 solutions  cos4 has 4times as many solutions. For 1 per sol¶s are

&
;to get the sol¶s for 0
<2 continuously add theperiod until you reach 2
ex. solve for x 
a) cscx=
3
.2sinx=1/
3
.2x1=0.
3
178x2=-0.
3
178=2.824
S
olving 1
st
Degree Equations
ex. Solve ( 
0
<
36
0°)
 
cos = -0.4
6
8ref angle =
6
2.095 = 180° -
6
2.095° = 117.905° = 180° +
6
2.095° = 242.095°b) csc
3
.2=x1/sin
3
.2=xx=-17.1
3
08
 
 60°30°
 
 
 
 
ex. Solve ( 
0
<
36
0°)
 
csc = -1.
3
4
6
 sin =

 ref angle = 47.98° = 180° + 47.98° = 227.98
3
° =
36
0° - 47.98° =
3
12.017°
S
olving 2
nd
Degree Equations
factor or use quadratic formula
ex. solve for 0 
<2 cos
a) cos
2
 =
 ¥cos
2
 = ¥
 cos =
 

 cos =

  = cos
-1
(

) = 0.955 = 2 ± 0.955 = 5.
3
28b) 4tan
2
 ± tan ±
3
= 0(tan ± 1)(4tan +
3
)tan = 1 =
  =
 c) csc
2
 + 5csc +
6
= 0(csc +
3
)(csc + 2)csc = -
3
 sin = -
 ref angle = 0.
3
4 =  + 0.
3
4 =
3
.481 =  + 0.
3
4 = 5.94
3
 d) seccsc ±
3
sec = 0sec(csc ±
3
) = 0cos = -
 no sol. b/c cos  isdefined everywhere
Chapter 2
y=b
x
b>1
y=b
x-h
+k
asymptote: y=ldomain: x
Rrange: y>k if y=+b
x
 y<k if y=-b
x
 
A
=P(1+r/n)
nt
A
=
A
o
X
t/T
 
X
: growth or decay factor Increase by 10%  1.10Decrease by 10%  0.90x
m
* x
n
= x
m+n
 x
m
/ x
n
= x
m-n
 (x
m
)
n
= x
mn
 (x/y)
m
= x
m
/y
m
 x
-n
= 1/x
n
 x
0
= 1x
m/n
= (x
1/n
)
m
=
n
¥(x
m
) = (
n
¥x)
m
 inverse of y=2
x
is x=2
y
... log
2
x=y
log
b
x=y  b
y
=xb>0, b
1
y=b
x
 b>1log
b
xb>1x>0
y= log
b
(x-h)+k
asymptote: x=hdomain: x>h if y=logxx<h of y=log(-x)range: y
Rlog
b
b
x
=xb
logbx
=xlog
b
b=1log
b
(xy) = log
b
x + log
b
ylog
b
(x/y) = log
b
x - log
b
ylog
b
(x
n
) = nlog
b
xlog
b
(
n
¥x) = log
b
(x
1/n
) = (1/n)log
b
x
ex. b/w ¶56 & ¶76 the annual pH of pption dropped from 5.6 to 4.3. how many times as acidic as the pption in ¶56 was the pption in ¶76?




 

 
 log
b
a = log
c
a/ log
c
ba>0, b>0, c>0; b
1, c
1
ex. log 
12 =



= 1.54ex. simplify log 
9
2=x 
log
3
2 = 2xcos = -

  = cos
-1
( -

)ref angle = 0.955 =  - 0.955 = 2.18
6
  =  + 0.955 = 4.097tan =
  = tan
-1
( -
)ref angle = -0.
6
44 =  ± 0.
6
44 = 2.498 = 2 ± 0.
6
44 = 5.
6
40csc = - 2sin = -
 ref angle =
  =  +
=
  = 2 -
=

 sin =
 
= 0.34
 =  ± 0.
3
4 = 2.802
 
y=b
x
0<b<1y=b
x
 0<b<1log
b
x0<b<1x>1Inverse x=b
y
 
 
ex. solve for x 
a) 2logx = log
3
2 + log2logx
2
= log(
3
2 * 2)logx
2
= log(
6
4)x
2
=
6
4x =
8reject x = -8
x = 8b) log
2
(-x) + log
2
(2-x) =
3
 log
2
(x
2
± 2x) =
3
 2
3
= x
2
± 2xx
2
± 2x ± 8 = 0(x + 4)(x + 2)x = 4, -2reject x = 4
x = -2
Continuous
G
rowth/Decay
A
=
A
o
e
kt
 Natural Logarithm (ln)
y=ex  log
e
y=x  lny=xlne = 1
ex. solve for x 
a) 45 = e
0.075x
ln45 = lne
0.075x
ln45 = 0.075x(lne)x =


= 50.755b) 7 = e
1-x
ln7 = (1 ± x)lnex = 1 ± ln7
Chapter 6
G
eometric
S
equence Formulat
n
= ar 
n-1
 Finding Terms
ex. find the indicated term
8, 1
6
,
3
2,
6
4, ... t
12
 t
12
= 8(2)
12-1
 t
12
= 1
63
84
Finding Number of Terms
ex. find the # of terms in the sequence
8, 1
6
,
3
2, ... 1
3
10721
3
1072 = 8(2)
n-1
 1
63
84 = 2
n-1
 log1
63
84 = (n-1)log2log1
63
84 = nlog2 ± log2log1
63
84 + log2 = nlog2n =




 n = 15
Finding the
S
equence
ex. find the geometric sequence with t 
3
= 45 &
t
7
=
36
45 from t
1
to t
7
 45, __, __, __,
36
45a = 45 r = ? n=5 t
5
=
36
45
36
45 = 45r 
5-1
 81 = r 
4
 r =
3
, -
3
 r =
3
: 5, 15, 45, 1
3
5, 405, 1215,
36
45r = -
3
: 5, -15, 45, -1
3
5, 405, -1215,
36
45
G
eometric Mean
ex. Given the geometric sequence: a, b, c 
 (geometric ratio)
 b
2
= acthus, geometric mean b/w a & c is
 
, -
 
 
ex. Between 8 & 128, insert 1 geometric mean
8, x, 128

 x
2
= 1024x =
3
2, -
3
28,
3
2, 1288. -
3
2, 128
ex. $8500 invested at 7 
% per year compounded monthly for 15 months

 
 



 = $9
36
1.7
3
 
A
pplications
U
se t
n
= a
n-1
to fill in all given info & find unknown
ex. If an apt. was purchased last year for $21000 and is now worth $226800. find the value 10 yearsfrom the original price. (Assume value continues todepreciate at same rate each year).
210000, 22
6
000, ...r =

= 1.08t
11
= 210000(1.08)
11-1
 
G
eometric
S
eries
 


 
or 
 

 
l = last termS
n
= sum of 1
st
n termsa = first termr = common ration = # of terms
ex. find sum of 1
st 
8 terms of 14 - 7 + 3.5 - 1.75 + ...



 

= 9.27tn = n
th
term r = common ratioa = 1
st
term n = # terms
(since n=1 corresponds tooriginal amount at year 0 would make n = 11)
 11

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