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for once my diagrams actually showed up properly!

it's a miracle!

I'll upload 'cumulative 3 review' shortly wich adds some things missed in this review, although it removes some stuff as well...

it's a miracle!

I'll upload 'cumulative 3 review' shortly wich adds some things missed in this review, although it removes some stuff as well...

for once my diagrams actually showed up properly!

it's a miracle!

I'll upload 'cumulative 3 review' shortly wich adds some things missed in this review, although it removes some stuff as well...

it's a miracle!

I'll upload 'cumulative 3 review' shortly wich adds some things missed in this review, although it removes some stuff as well...

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Chapter 1y = af[b(x-h)]+ka

± vertical dilation (x, ay)if 0<a<1 vertical compressionif a>1 vertical expansion

b

± horizontal dilation (

, y)if 0<b<1 horizontal expansionif b>1 horizontal compression

h

± horizontal translation (x+h, y)if h>0 rightif h<0 left

k

± vertical translation (x, y+k)if k>0 upif k<0 down

Reflections

-If a is negative, reflect over x-axis (y valuesbecome opposite) (y=-f(x)) (-y=f(x)) (x, -y)-If b is negative, reflect over y-axis (x valuesbecome opposite) (y=f(-x)) (-x, y)

Inverse

y=f(x) x=f(y) [f

-1

(x), reflect over line y=x(swap x & y values) (y, x)to solve interchange x & y in the fn & solvefor y

Reciprocals

y=f(x)

(where y=0 on original graph vertical asymptote(s)) (x,

) (if y is pos, reciprocalalso remains pos; if neg, stays neg) (x-axis:horizontal asymptote) (y=1, y=-1 stay the same

A

bsolute Values

y=|f(x)| (to graph reflect all parts of original graphthat are below the x-axis to above the x-axis; allparts above the x-axis stay the same)y=f(|x|) (to graph first graph y=f(x) then reflect onlythe positive x values over the y-axis, also keep thepoints with a positive x value)

Chapter 4Conversions

n°(

) = mradmrad(

)= n°

S

ector

A

ngle

a=r ( in rad)

A

ngle Definitions

Standard position ± angle has a vertex on the origin& initial arm on positive x-axis; rotation counter clockwise angle is positive; rotation clockwise angle is negativeCoterminal angle -

36

0° or

2radPrincipal angle ± the least of the positive coterminalangles

S

pecial Right ¨s

*factor out coefficient before finding phase shift*y=asin[b(-c)]+d (b=2/per; per=2/ba-amp, b-per, c-ps, d-vd*put calc in RAD mode for q¶s like µcos2¶ or µsec2¶

Chapter 5

ex. find the exact solutions

a) sin =

=

= - -

=

b) cos =

= - -

=

= + -

=

ex. use graphs to solve

a) sin = 0 = 0, b) cos = 1 = 0c) tan = 0 = 0,

G

eneral

S

olution

Add the per to the smallest positive solution

ex. find the general solution of sin = 0

= 0, GS: = n where n is an integer *for 0

<2 cos has 2 solutions cos4 has 4times as many solutions. For 1 per sol¶s are

&

;to get the sol¶s for 0

<2 continuously add theperiod until you reach 2

ex. solve for x

a) cscx=

3

.2sinx=1/

3

.2x1=0.

3

178x2=-0.

3

178=2.824

S

olving 1

st

Degree Equations

ex. Solve (

0

<

36

0°)

cos = -0.4

6

8ref angle =

6

2.095 = 180° -

6

2.095° = 117.905° = 180° +

6

2.095° = 242.095°b) csc

3

.2=x1/sin

3

.2=xx=-17.1

3

08

60°30°

ex. Solve (

0

<

36

0°)

csc = -1.

3

4

6

sin =

ref angle = 47.98° = 180° + 47.98° = 227.98

3

° =

36

0° - 47.98° =

3

12.017°

S

olving 2

nd

Degree Equations

factor or use quadratic formula

ex. solve for 0

<2 cos

a) cos

2

=

¥cos

2

= ¥

cos =

cos =

= cos

-1

(

) = 0.955 = 2 ± 0.955 = 5.

3

28b) 4tan

2

± tan ±

3

= 0(tan ± 1)(4tan +

3

)tan = 1 =

=

c) csc

2

+ 5csc +

6

= 0(csc +

3

)(csc + 2)csc = -

3

sin = -

ref angle = 0.

3

4 = + 0.

3

4 =

3

.481 = + 0.

3

4 = 5.94

3

d) seccsc ±

3

sec = 0sec(csc ±

3

) = 0cos = -

no sol. b/c cos isdefined everywhere

Chapter 2

y=b

x

b>1

y=b

x-h

+k

asymptote: y=ldomain: x

Rrange: y>k if y=+b

x

y<k if y=-b

x

A

=P(1+r/n)

nt

A

=

A

o

X

t/T

X

: growth or decay factor Increase by 10% 1.10Decrease by 10% 0.90x

m

* x

n

= x

m+n

x

m

/ x

n

= x

m-n

(x

m

)

n

= x

mn

(x/y)

m

= x

m

/y

m

x

-n

= 1/x

n

x

0

= 1x

m/n

= (x

1/n

)

m

=

n

¥(x

m

) = (

n

¥x)

m

inverse of y=2

x

is x=2

y

... log

2

x=y

log

b

x=y b

y

=xb>0, b

1

y=b

x

b>1log

b

xb>1x>0

y= log

b

(x-h)+k

asymptote: x=hdomain: x>h if y=logxx<h of y=log(-x)range: y

Rlog

b

b

x

=xb

logbx

=xlog

b

b=1log

b

(xy) = log

b

x + log

b

ylog

b

(x/y) = log

b

x - log

b

ylog

b

(x

n

) = nlog

b

xlog

b

(

n

¥x) = log

b

(x

1/n

) = (1/n)log

b

x

ex. b/w ¶56 & ¶76 the annual pH of pption dropped from 5.6 to 4.3. how many times as acidic as the pption in ¶56 was the pption in ¶76?

log

b

a = log

c

a/ log

c

ba>0, b>0, c>0; b

1, c

1

ex. log

5

12 =

= 1.54ex. simplify log

9

2=x

log

3

2 = 2xcos = -

= cos

-1

( -

)ref angle = 0.955 = - 0.955 = 2.18

6

= + 0.955 = 4.097tan =

= tan

-1

( -

)ref angle = -0.

6

44 = ± 0.

6

44 = 2.498 = 2 ± 0.

6

44 = 5.

6

40csc = - 2sin = -

ref angle =

= +

=

= 2 -

=

sin =

= 0.34

= ± 0.

3

4 = 2.802

y=b

x

0<b<1y=b

x

0<b<1log

b

x0<b<1x>1Inverse x=b

y

ex. solve for x

a) 2logx = log

3

2 + log2logx

2

= log(

3

2 * 2)logx

2

= log(

6

4)x

2

=

6

4x =

8reject x = -8

x = 8b) log

2

(-x) + log

2

(2-x) =

3

log

2

(x

2

± 2x) =

3

2

3

= x

2

± 2xx

2

± 2x ± 8 = 0(x + 4)(x + 2)x = 4, -2reject x = 4

x = -2

Continuous

G

rowth/Decay

A

=

A

o

e

kt

Natural Logarithm (ln)

y=ex log

e

y=x lny=xlne = 1

ex. solve for x

a) 45 = e

0.075x

ln45 = lne

0.075x

ln45 = 0.075x(lne)x =

= 50.755b) 7 = e

1-x

ln7 = (1 ± x)lnex = 1 ± ln7

Chapter 6

G

eometric

S

equence Formulat

n

= ar

n-1

Finding Terms

ex. find the indicated term

8, 1

6

,

3

2,

6

4, ... t

12

t

12

= 8(2)

12-1

t

12

= 1

63

84

Finding Number of Terms

ex. find the # of terms in the sequence

8, 1

6

,

3

2, ... 1

3

10721

3

1072 = 8(2)

n-1

1

63

84 = 2

n-1

log1

63

84 = (n-1)log2log1

63

84 = nlog2 ± log2log1

63

84 + log2 = nlog2n =

n = 15

Finding the

S

equence

ex. find the geometric sequence with t

3

= 45 &

t

7

=

36

45 from t

1

to t

7

45, __, __, __,

36

45a = 45 r = ? n=5 t

5

=

36

45

36

45 = 45r

5-1

81 = r

4

r =

3

, -

3

r =

3

: 5, 15, 45, 1

3

5, 405, 1215,

36

45r = -

3

: 5, -15, 45, -1

3

5, 405, -1215,

36

45

G

eometric Mean

ex. Given the geometric sequence: a, b, c

(geometric ratio)

b

2

= acthus, geometric mean b/w a & c is

, -

ex. Between 8 & 128, insert 1 geometric mean

8, x, 128

x

2

= 1024x =

3

2, -

3

28,

3

2, 1288. -

3

2, 128

ex. $8500 invested at 7

% per year compounded monthly for 15 months

= $9

36

1.7

3

A

pplications

U

se t

n

= a

n-1

to fill in all given info & find unknown

ex. If an apt. was purchased last year for $21000 and is now worth $226800. find the value 10 yearsfrom the original price. (Assume value continues todepreciate at same rate each year).

210000, 22

6

000, ...r =

= 1.08t

11

= 210000(1.08)

11-1

G

eometric

S

eries

or

l = last termS

n

= sum of 1

st

n termsa = first termr = common ration = # of terms

ex. find sum of 1

st

8 terms of 14 - 7 + 3.5 - 1.75 + ...

= 9.27tn = n

th

term r = common ratioa = 1

st

term n = # terms

(since n=1 corresponds tooriginal amount at year 0 would make n = 11)

11

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