in many aspects. However, ethnic and religious backgrounds have been moreprone to conflicts than other aspects of diversity, such as language.
To understand the condition of citizenship in Indonesia, it is better to takeKymlicka’s notion about what he calls as
Since Indonesia is a country with various elements of ethnicities,races and religions, the citizenship model that it should apply has acknowledgeall those differences.Kymlicka in Shafir (1998) divides the notion of differentiated citizenshipinto three categories: 1) polyethnic rights, 2) representation rights, and 3) self-government rights. The former two are dealing with inclusion to the larger society.Meanwhile, the last is dealing with exclusion or withdrawal from the larger community.He then explains that
demand shows that the minority groupswant to take part in the larger society. He takes a case of Sikhs in RoyalCanadian Mounted Police as an example. In the Sikhs case here, they wanted to join the Police, but it is hard for them because their religious belief requires themto wear turban, their typical headgear. Whereas, turban is not part of the RoyalCanadian Police uniform. Many people opposed the idea of the Sikhs to wear turban because they think this a sign of disrespect for “national symbols.”(Kymlicka in Shafir 1998, p.170). Whereas, Kymlicka adds that the special rightsthat they want is promoting rather than discouraging their integration.3