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Holography

Holography

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Published by vaisakh
This is the 1st big day on holography since i learned what it is... so i would like to share it with all.......................
This is the 1st big day on holography since i learned what it is... so i would like to share it with all.......................

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Published by: vaisakh on Jun 09, 2010
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11/27/2010

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Holography was discovered in 1947 by Hugarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor (Hungarian name: Gábor Dénes) (1900–1979), work for which he received the NobelPrize in Physics in 1971. Pioneering work in the field of physics by other scientistsincluding Mieczyslaw Wolfke resolved technical issues which previously had preventedadvancement. The discovery was an unexpected result of research into improvingelectron microscopes at the British Thomson-Houston Company in Rugby, England, andthe company filed a patent in December 1947 (patent GB685286). The technique asoriginally invented is still used in electron microscopy, where it is known as electronholography, but holography as a light-optical technique did not really advance until thedevelopment of the laser in 1960.The first holograms that recorded 3D objects were made in 1962 by Yuri Denisyuk in theSoviet Union and by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatneiks at University of Michigan, USA.Advances in photochemical processing techniques to produce high-quality displayholograms were achieved by Nicholas J. Phillips.Several types of holograms can be made. Transmission holograms, such as those produced by Leith and Upatnieks, are viewed by shining laser light through them andlooking at the reconstructed image from the side of the hologram opposite the source. Alater refinement, the "rainbow transmission" hologram, allows more convenientillumination by white light or other monochromatic sources rather than by lasers.Rainbow holograms are commonly seen today on credit cards as a security feature and on product packaging. These versions of the rainbow transmission hologram are commonlyformed as surface relief patterns in a plastic film, and they incorporate a reflectivealuminum coating that provides the light from "behind" to reconstruct their imagery.Another kind of common hologram, the reflection or Denisyuk hologram, is capable of multicolour image reproduction using a white light illumination source on the same sideof the hologram as the viewer.One of the most promising recent advances in the short history of holography has beenthe mass production of low-cost solid-state lasers, such as those found in millions of DVD recorders and used in other common applications, which are sometimes also usefulfor holography. These cheap, compact, solid-state lasers can, under some circumstances,compete well with the large, expensive gas lasers previously required to make holograms,and are already helping to make holography much more accessible to low-budgetresearchers, artists and dedicated hobbyists.Though holography is often referred to as 3D photography, this is a misconception. A better analogy is sound recording where the sound field is encoded in such a way that itcan later be reproduced. In holography, some of the light scattered from an object or a setof objects falls on the recording medium. A second light beam, known as the reference beam, also illuminates the recording medium, so that interference occurs between the two beams. The resulting light field is a seemingly random pattern of varying intensity whichis the hologram. It can be shown that if the hologram is illuminated by the originalreference beam, a light field is diffracted by the reference beam which is identical to the
 
light field which was scattered by the object or objects. Thus, someone looking into thehologram "sees" the objects even though they are no longer present. There are a varietyof recording materials which can be used, including photographic film.
Interference and diffraction
Interference occurs when one or more wavefronts are superimposed. Diffraction occurswhenever a wavefront encounters an object. The process of producing a holographicreconstruction is explained below purely in terms of interference and diffraction. It issomewhat simplistic, but is accurate enough to provide an understanding of how theholographic process works.
Plane wavefronts
A diffraction grating is a structure with a repeating pattern. A simple example is a metal plate with slits cut at regular intervals. Light rays travelling through it are bent at an angledetermined by λ, d, the distance between the slits and is given by sinθ = λ/d.A very simple hologram can be made by superimposing two plane waves from the samelight source. One (the reference beam) hits the photographic plate normally and the other one (the object beam) hits the plate at an angle θ. The relative phase between the two beams varies across the photographic plate as 2π y sinθ/λ where y is the distance alongthe photographic plate. The two beams interfere with one another to form an interference pattern. The relative phase changes by 2π at intervals of d = λ/sinθ so the spacing of theinterference fringes is given by d. Thus, the relative phase of object and reference beam isencoded as the maxima and minima of the fringe pattern.When the photographic plate is developed, the fringe pattern acts as a diffraction gratingand when the reference beam is incident upon the photographic plate, it is partlydiffracted into the same angle θ at which the original object beam was incident. Thus, theobject beam has been reconstructed. The diffraction grating created by the two wavesinterfering has reconstructed the "object beam" and it is therefore a hologram as definedabove.
Point sources
 
Holographic reconstruction processA slightly more complicated hologram can be made using a point source of light as object beam and a plane wave as reference beam to illuminate the photographic plate. Aninterference pattern is formed which in this case is in the form of curves of decreasingseparation with increasing distance from the centre.The photographic plate is developed giving a complicated pattern which can beconsidered to be made up of a diffraction pattern of varying spacing. When the plate isilluminated by the reference beam alone, it is diffracted by the grating into differentangles which depend on the local spacing of the pattern on the plate. It can be shown thatthe net effect of this is to reconstruct the object beam, so that it appears that light iscoming from a point source behind the plate, even when the source has been removed.The light emerging from the photographic plate is identical to the light that emerged fromthe point source that used to be there. An observer looking into the plate from the other side will "see" a point source of light whether the original source of light is there or not.This sort of hologram is effectively a concave lens, since it "converts" a plane wavefrontinto a divergent wavefront. It will also increase the divergence of any wave which isincident on it in exactly the same way as a normal lens does. Its focal length is thedistance between the point source and the plate.
Complex objects
To record a hologram of a complex object, a laser beam is first split into two separate beams of light using a beam splitter of half-silvered glass or a birefringent material. One beam illuminates the object, reflecting its image onto the recording medium as it scattersthe beam. The second (reference) beam illuminates the recording medium directly.

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