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Published by: udicse on Jun 09, 2010
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By Ken Schwaber, May, 2009

Scrum has been used to develop complex products since the early 1990s. This paper describes how to use Scrum to build products. Scrum is not a process or a technique or building products; rather, it is a ramework within which you can employ various processes and techniques. The role o Scrum is to surace the relative ecacy o your development practices so that you can improve upon them while providing a framework within which complex products

can be developed.

Scrum, which is grounded in empirical process control theory, employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk. Three legs uphold every implementation o empirical process control.


Transparency ensures that aspects o the process that aect the outcome must be visible to those managing the outcomes. Not only must these aspects be transparent, but also what is being seen must be known. That is, when someone inspecting a process believes that something is done; it must be equivalent to their denition o done.


The various aspects o the process must be inspected requently enough so that unacceptable variances in the process can be detected. The requency o inspection has to take into consideration that all processes are changed by the act o inspection. A conundrum occurs when the required requency o inspection exceeds the tolerance to inspection o the process. Fortunately, this doesn’t seem to be true o sotware development. The other actor is the skill and diligence o the people inspecting the work results.

By Ken Schwaber, May, 2009

I the inspector determines rom the inspection that one or more aspects o the process are outside acceptable limits, and that the resulting product will be unacceptable, the inspector must adjust the process or the material being processed. The adjustment must be made as quickly as possible to minimize urther deviation.

There are three points or inspection and adaptation in Scrum. The Daily Scrum meeting is used to inspect progress toward the Sprint goal, and to make adaptations that optimize the value o the next work day. In addition, the Sprint Review and Planning meetings are used to inspect progress toward the Release Goal and to make adaptations that optimize the value o the next Sprint. Finally, the Sprint Retrospective is used to review the past Sprint and determine what adaptations will make the next Sprint more productive, ullling, and enjoyable.

The Scrum ramework consists o a set oS c ru m Te a m s and their associated roles:
Time-Boxes, Artifacts,and Rules.

Scrum Teams are designed to optimize fexibility and productivity; to this end, they are sel- organizing, they are cross-unctional, and they work in iterations. Each Scrum Team has three roles: 1) theScrumM aster, who is responsible or ensuring the process is understood and ollowed; 2) the Product Owner, who is responsible or maximizing the value o the work that the Scrum Team does; and 3) theTe a m, which does the work. The Team consists o developers with all the skills to turn the Product Owner’s requirements into a potentially releasable piece o the product by the end o the Sprint.

Scrum employs time boxes to create regularity. Elements o Scrum that are timeboxed include the Release Planning Meeting, the Sprint Planning Meeting, theSprint, the Daily Scrum, the Sprint Review, and the Sprint Retrospective. The heart o Scrum is aSprint, which is an iteration o one month or less that is o consistent length throughout a development eort. All Sprints use the same Scrum ramework, and all Sprints deliver an increment o the nal product that is potentially releasable. One Sprint starts immediately ater the other.

Scrum employs our principal artiacts. The Product Backlog is a prioritized list o everything that might be needed in the product. The Sprint Backlog is a list o tasks to turn the Product Backlog or one Sprint into an increment o potentially shippable product. A burndown is a measure o remaining backlog over time. A Release Burndown measures remaining Product Backlog across the time o a release plan. A Sprint Burndown measures remainingSprint

Backlog items across the time o a Sprint.

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