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EEOC on Race and Color

EEOC on Race and Color

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Published by Yuri
Race and Color Discrimination for EEOC Table of Contents - not created by me.
Race and Color Discrimination for EEOC Table of Contents - not created by me.

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Published by: Yuri on Jun 09, 2010
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10/27/2011

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DIRECTIVES TRANSMITTAL
Number 
EEOC 
915.003Date4/19/06
SUBJECT:
EEOC COMPLIANCE MANUAL
PURPOSE:
This transmittal covers the issuance of Section 15 of the new ComplianceManual, on “Race and Color Discrimination.” The Manual Section provides guidance on analyzing charges of race and color discriminationunder Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
ORIGINATOR:
Office of Legal Counsel, Title VII/ADEA/EPA Division
EFFECTIVEDATE:
Upon receipt
DISTRIBUTION:
EEOC Compliance Manual holders/S/Cari M. DominguezChair 
 
SECTION 15: RACE and COLOR DISCRIMINATIONTABLE OF CONTENTS
15-I OVERVIEW..................................................................................115-II WHAT IS “RACE” DISCRIMINATION?..........................................................315-III WHAT IS COLORDISCRIMINATION?........................................................615-IV RELATED PROTECTED BASES...............................................................7A. NATIONAL ORIGIN................................................................8B. RELIGION........................................................................8C.INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION ...............................................815-V EVALUATING EMPLOYMENT DECISIONS.....................................................9A. RACIAL DISPARATE TREATMENT..................................................91. Recognizing Racial Motive....................................................92.Conducting a Thorough Investigation...........................................13Potential Evidence of Racial Disparate TreatmentEmployer Credibility3. Recognizing Pattern or PracticeRace Discrimination............................19B. RACIAL DISPARATE IMPACT.....................................................2015-VI EQUAL ACCESS TO JOBS...................................................................22A. RECRUITING....................................................................221. Job Advertisements and Employment Agencies...................................232. Word-of-Mouth Referrals....................................................233. Homogeneous Recruitment Sources............................................244. Discriminatory Screening of Recruits...........................................24B. HIRING AND PROMOTION........................................................251. Uniform and Consistently Applied Standards....................................252. Job-Related Standards, Consistent with Business Necessity.........................27Education RequirementsEmployment TestingConviction and Arrest RecordsC. DIVERSITY AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION...........................................3115-VII EQUAL OPPORTUNITY FOR JOB SUCCESS...................................................35A. RACIAL HARASSMENT...........................................................351. Unwelcome Conduct........................................................362. Severe or Pervasive.........................................................363. Employer Liability..........................................................41Conduct of SupervisorsConduct of Owner, President, Partners, or OfficersConduct of Co-workers and Non-employeesB. RACIAL BIAS IN OTHER EMPLOYMENT TERMS AND CONDITIONS...................441. Work Assignments.........................................................442. Performance Evaluations.....................................................453. Training and Constructive Feedback...........................................464. Workplace Networks........................................................475. Appearance and Grooming Standards...........................................476. Compensation.............................................................497. Discipline and Discharge.....................................................50C. RETALIATION...................................................................5115-VIII REMEDIES...............................................................................5215-IX
L
PROACTIVE PREVENTION
7
.............................................................53
 
1
See United Steelworkers of America v. Weber 
, 443 U.S. 193, 202-03 (1979) (also noting: the1962 unemployment rate of Blacks and other people of color was 124 percent higher than that of Whites).
2
The following terms are used interchangeably in this document due to their frequent andaccepted vernacular usage: “Black” and “African American”; “White” and “Caucasian”; “Asian” and “AsianAmerican”; “American Indian” and “Native American”; and “Latino” and “Hispanic.” The document willrefer to non-Whites generally as “people of color.”
3
 
See Franks v. Bowman Transp. Co., Inc.
, 424 U.S. 747, 763 (1976) (“Congress intended to prohibit all practices in whatever form which create inequality in employment opportunity due todiscrimination [prohibited by Title VII] . . . and ordained that its policy of outlawing such discriminationshould have the highest priority.”) (citations omitted). For a good discussion of the history of Title VIIenforcement, see C
ELEBRATING THE
40
TH
 
A
 NNIVERSARY OF
T
ITLE
VII
 
(2004),
 
athttp://www.eeoc.gov/abouteeoc/40th/panel/; and T
HE
S
TORY OF
T
HE
U
 NITED
S
TATES
E
QUAL
E
MPLOYMENT
O
PPORTUNITY
C
OMMISSION
:
 
E
 NSURING THE
P
ROMISE OF
O
PPORTUNITY FOR 
35
 
Y
EARS
(2000),
available at 
http://www.eeoc.gov/abouteeoc/35th/index.html.
4
See
EEOC Charge Statistics,
at 
 http://www.eeoc.gov/stats/charges.html.
SECTION 15: RACE and COLOR DISCRIMINATION
15-I OVERVIEW
With the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Congress sought to eliminate the problems of segregation and discrimination in the United States. The impetus for the Act was thecivil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, which challenged the denial of the right of Blacksto participate equally in society.The employment title of the Act — Title VII — covers employment discrimination basedon race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or protected activity. Title VII’s prohibitions againstrace and color discrimination were aimed at ending a system in which Blacks were “largelyrelegated to unskilled and semi-skilled jobs.”
1
However, Congress drafted the statute broadly tocover race or color discrimination against anyone – Whites, Blacks, Asians, Latinos, Arabs,American Indians and Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, persons of more thanone race, and all other persons.
2
Today, the national policy of nondiscrimination is firmly rooted in the law.
3
In addition, itgenerally is agreed that equal opportunity has increased dramatically in America, including inemployment. Blacks and other people of color now work in virtually every field, and opportunitiesare increasing at every level.Yet significant work remains to be done. Charges alleging race discrimination inemployment accounted for 35.5 percent of the Commission’s 2005 charge receipts, making race stillthe most-alleged basis of employment discrimination under federal law.
4
In addition, several privatestudies conducted in the early 2000s provide telling evidence that race discrimination inemployment persists. A 2003 study in Milwaukee found that Whites with a criminal record received job call-backs at a rate more than three times that of Blacks with the same criminal record, and even

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