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Biology, Chapter Four, Notes

Biology, Chapter Four, Notes



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Published by: Julie on Sep 26, 2007
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UNIT TWO: CELL BIOLOGY(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)1
ChapterChapterChapterChapter Four (Cell Structure and Function)Four (Cell Structure and Function)Four (Cell Structure and Function)Four (Cell Structure and Function)
SECTION ONE: THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGYSECTION ONE: THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGYSECTION ONE: THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGYSECTION ONE: THE HISTORY OF CELL BIOLOGYTHE DISCOVERY OF CELLSA cellcellcellcell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the process of life. By usingmicroscopes, naturalists in the 17 
century were able to study objects two small tobe seen with the naked eye.HookeUsing an early light microscope, English scientist Robert Hooke looked at a thinslice of cork from the bark of a cork oak tree in 1665. He described “a great manylittle boxes” that reminded him of the cells where monks live.LeeuwenhoekA Dutch trader named Anton van Leeuwenhoek made microscopes that had 10times the magnification of Hooke’s instruments. In 1673, he was able to observe livingcells of algae and protists.THE CELL THEORYIt was not until about 150 years later than biologists began to organizeinformation about cells more completely. The observations of botanist MatthiasSchleiden, zoologist Theodor Schwann, and physician Rudolf Virchow were combined to form the cellcellcellcell theory, a basic theory about how cells are related to life.Developments in Cell BiologyAfter the initial formation of the cell theory, scientists began to furtherinvestigate how cells function. In 1827, Karl Von Baer discovered the mammalian eggand in 1855, Rudolf Virchow added to the cell theory.The Cellular Basis in LifeIn addition to the seven characteristics mentioned in the last chapter, allliving things share a common history. All cells share characteristics.
The Cell TheoryThe Cell TheoryThe Cell TheoryThe Cell TheoryAll living organisms are composed of one or more cells.Cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism.Cells come from only the reproduction of existing cells.
UNIT TWO: CELL BIOLOGY(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)2SECTION TWO: INTRODUCSECTION TWO: INTRODUCSECTION TWO: INTRODUCSECTION TWO: INTRODUCTION TO CELLSTION TO CELLSTION TO CELLSTION TO CELLSCELL DIVERSITYCell ShapeThe diversity in cell shapes reflects the different functions of cells. Toperform its function effectively, a cell’s shape has evolved to be either simple orcomplex.Cell SizeThe size of a cell is limited by its
surface area –to-volume ratio 
. When a cellgrows, its volume increases much faster than its surface area. If cells became toolarge, their surface area wouldn’t be able to allow materials to enter or leave thecell quickly enough to meet the cell’s needs.BASIC PARTS OF A CELLPlasma MembraneThe plasma membraneplasma membraneplasma membraneplasma membrane (cell membrane) is the cell’s outer boundary that actsas a barrier between the inside and outside of a cell. All materials exit or enterthrough the plasma membrane.CytoplasmThe region of the cell that is in the plasma membrane that includes the fluid,cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles excluding the nucleus is the cytoplasmcytoplasmcytoplasmcytoplasm. Thecytosolcytosolcytosolcytosol is the part of the cytoplasm that includes molecules and small particles.
SECTION 1 REVIEWSECTION 1 REVIEWSECTION 1 REVIEWSECTION 1 REVIEW1.1.1.1. Describe the major contributions of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek to cell biology. Identify the advance that enabled Leeuwenhoek to view the first living cells. Describe the research that led to the development of the cell theory. State the three fundamental parts of the cell theory. List three major events in the history of cell biology. Name eight characteristics that all living things share.CRITICAL THINKING7.7.7.7. If you could go back in time, how would you explain the cell theory to someone who hadnever heard of cells? A biologists photographs a cell in a microscope magnified at 40 times. The cell in thephoto is 2 mm in diameter. What is the true diameter to the cell in micrometers (
m)? If organisms exist on other planets, would they consist of cells? Defend your answer.
UNIT TWO: CELL BIOLOGY(Text from Modern Biology, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston)3Control CenterCells carry information in the form of DNA for regulating their functions andreproducing themselves. Some cells have a membrane-bound organelle that containsa cell’s DNA, called the nucleusnucleusnucleusnucleus. It maintains its shape with the help of a proteinskeleton called the
nuclear matrix 
. Below is the nucleus of a typical animal cell.TWO BASIC TYPES OF CELLSProkaryotesProkaryotesProkaryotesProkaryotesProkaryotes are organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Theirgenetic information is concentrated in a part of the cellcalled a
.EukaryotesOrganisms made up of one or more cells that havea nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are calledeukaryoteseukaryoteseukaryoteseukaryotes. Eukaryotic cells also have subcellularstructures called organellesorganellesorganellesorganelles, which are intracellular bodiesthat perform specific functions for the cell.CELLULAR ORGANIZATIONColoniesA
colonial organism 
is a collection of genetically identical cells that livetogether in a connected group.

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