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Hezbollah

Hezbollah

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Published by James Bradley
Lebanon's Army or Terrorist Organization
Lebanon's Army or Terrorist Organization

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: James Bradley on Jun 10, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/01/2012

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Kanook – Tlingit Nation
 June 6
th
, 2010
Whenever someone like myself takes a look back into the past, the firstitem that manifests itself is that it is complicated, somewhat clouded anddepending on the author’s of record most definitely biased. Myself, being anamateur and not having unlimited experience in compositions about the paston our planet, find myself at times hard not to draw a line defining anunbiased account. Whereas the biggest disadvantage I have is that I wasraised in an extremely biased country with its views of the Middle Easterncultures in that they are mostly Muslim in makeup, and the United Statesalbeit a mixture of different ethnic populations, we find a government that is99.9% Christian, along with a similar distribution of its media that is stronglyinfluenced by Jewish organizations.I made up my mind to examine the Hezbollah for a couple of reasons, thefirst is that I have spent time working in the country of its origin, Lebanon andsecondly the explosive events that have taken place over the past week,whereas nine lives were lost when Israel diverted a flotilla bound for Gaza.With reference to Lebanon, the country of birth of the Hezbollah, we findalmost since the beginning of our present civilization Lebanon has been thebattleground for the countries surrounding it – and invaders from across thesea. Ever since Abraham wandered out of southeastern Turkey underinstructions from his God, Lebanon has been the last bastion against theaggressions of his descendants in one manner or the other, beginning withthe herdsmen from Turkey labeling the Canaanites and Phoenicians asbarbarians who killed their own children and burned them as sacrifices totheir heathen deities.Like I said, history is complicated! To begin to understand the Hezbollah one has to step beyond the rhetoricfound in the accusations from the West and look beneath their original
 
foundation beginning when France finally vacated Lebanon following theachievement of its independence on November 22
nd
, 1943. The allies kept Lebanon under their control until the end of WWII, with thelast French troops withdrawing in December of 1946. Leaving the new Nationto operate under a National Pact developed in 1943 that its President be aMaronite Christian, the speaker of the Parliament a Shi’ite Muslim, with thePrime Minister a Sunni Muslim and the Deputy speaker of Parliament a GreekOrthodox.For the last 66 ½ years Lebanon has had a independence that has not beeneasy to come by can be said a misstatement, during this period it hasenjoyed alternating periods of political stability and financial prosperity, withlong periods of political instability and turmoil dragged inside its borders thatalmost destroyed it indigenous population.In 1948, after the United Nations passed a resolution granting the refugee Jews from Europe to settle in Palestine, Lebanon was one of the MiddleEastern nations who participated in the war against Israel – in retrospect noLebanese forces ever entered into Israel to do battle, and yet today Lebanonremains as one of the nations who did not endorse a peace treaty with Israel.During the war over 100,000 Palestinians fled across the border intoLebanon, and after Jordon expelled the Palestinians after the battles in Jordon, the refugees fled to Lebanon which today has over 400,000Palestinians living in limbo in the country, where they are denied citizenshipand are not allowed to work in 20 plus professions.In 1975 civil war broke out in Lebanon, a civil war that lasted over 15-years,all but destroying the country whereas it devastated its economy, which atone time was one of the strongest in the Middle East, and the loss of life canonly be estimated at over 150,000 with over 200,000 wounded, with another900,000 displaced from their homes. When the Ta’if Agreement was finallyendorsed in 1990 the country of Lebanon was literally in ruins. The
Movement of the Disinherited
was begin by
Sayyid Mūsá aṣ-Ṣadr 
in1974, and just as many other organizations was not found on a whim or asingle idea popping into his head one day when he was taking a shower.As-Sadr an Iranian born Lebanese was born in Qom, Iran where he grew upcompleting his primary school and going off to college in Tehran, where in
 
1956 earned a degree in Islamic Jurisprudence and Political Sciences from Tehran University, and moved back to Qom to study Theology and Islamicphilosophy under ‘Allāmah Muḥammad Ḥusayn Ṭabāṭabā'ī. And later studiedat Najaf, Iraq more theology under Ayatollah Muḥsin al-Ḥākim and Abū l-Qāṣim Khū'ī.His family originally from Lebanon he later accepted an invitation tobecome the leading Shi’i figure in Tyre, where he was known as
Imām Mūsá
and in short-order became one of the most prominent advocates for theShī‘ah populations of Lebanon – a group that was both economically andpolitically disadvantaged – whereas he worked day-and-night to improve theirstandings in Lebanon and to provide them with a voice, and to protect themfrom the ravages of war and inter-communal strife.He was seen as a moderate albeit he demanded that the MaroniteChristians relinquish “some” of their power while seeking peaceful relationsbetween the different groups. He was a vocal opponent of Israel and in morethan one occasion attacked the PLO for endangering Lebanese civilians withtheir attacks. In 1969 he was appointed the first leader of the SupremeIslamic Shi’ite Council (“SISC”) and entity created to give the Shi’ah more sayin Government whereas for the next four-years, he engaged the leadership of the Syrian Alawis in an attempt to unify their political powers with that of the Twelve Shi’ah. The
Movement of the Disinherited
was his effort to create better economicand social conditions for the Shi’ah, whereas he established a number of schools and medical clinics throughout southern Lebanon, many of which arestill in operation today. At times he felt like a lone voice in the wilderness inhis constant struggle to prevent the descent into violence that eventually ledto the Lebanese Civil War, albeit he failed he aligned himself with theLebanese National Movement, and to protect his
Movement of theDisinherited
he developed an armed spin-off known as
 Afwaj al-Muqawma al-Lubnaniyyah
n, better known today as “Amal” – however he withdrew hissupport after the Syrian invasion on the side of the Lebanese Front.In August 1978, As-Sadr and two companions Sheikh Muhammad Yaacouband journalist Abbas Badreddine flew off to Libya to meet with governmentofficials and disappeared off the face of the globe. According to Iranian

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