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Statistical Process Control for Level 4

Statistical Process Control for Level 4

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Statistical Process Control
Statistical Process Control

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Published by: rk09 on Jun 09, 2008
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10/14/2011

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Statistical Process Control (SPC)
 A Metrics-Based Point of View of Software Processes Achieving the CMMI Level Four
 Reiner Dumke, Isabelle Côté, Olga Andruschak 
Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Institut für Verteilte Systemedumke@ivs.cs.uni-magdeburg.de, http://ivs.cs.uni-magdeburg.de/sw-eng/agruppe
Contents
1 The CMMI Approach ………………………………………..…………………… 2
1.1 Basic Intentions of the CMMI ………………………………………………………………………. 21.2 The CMMI Levels …………………………………………………………………………………... 31.3 The CMMI Metrication ……………………………………………………………………………… 7
2 Software Measurement Intentions ……………………………………………….. 10
2.1 The CAME Measurement Framework ……………………………………………………………….. 102.2 The CMMI Metrics Set by Kulpa and Johnson …………………………………….………………. 152.3 The CMMI-Based Organization’s Measurement Repository ………………………………………. 20
3 The Statistical Software Process (SPC)…………………………………………… 21
3.1 Foundations of the SPC……………………………………………………………………………. 213.2 Empirical Strategies ……………………………………………………………………………….. 273.3 Testing Methods …………………………………………………………………………………333.4 Methods of Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………. 39
4 SPC and CMMI ……………………………………………………………………. 66
4.1 Basics of Quantified Process Management …………………………………………………………… 664.2 Controlling the Process Improvement ……………………………………………………………….... 69.
5 References ……………………………………………………………………….… 79
 Abstract
The following preprint gives a new form of integration of the idea of the statistical based analysis of the softwareprocess (SPC) in the assessment and improvement activities considering the Capability Maturity ModelIntegration initiative. Including the basic statistical methods and software experiment foundations we willdescribe a structured approach for metrication of the different stages of the CMMI approach. Further, thispreprint shows appropriate methods of statistical analysis in order to improve the software process areas andactivities for a quantified managed process level based on metrics set defines by Kulpa and Johnson.
1
 
1 The CMMI Approach
1.1 Basic Intentions of the CMMI
CMMI stands for
Capability Maturity Model Integration
and is an initiative for changing the general intentionof an
assessment view
based of the “classical” CMM or ISO 9000 to an
improvement view
integrating the SystemEngineering CMM (SE-CMM), the Software Acquisition Capability Maturity Model (SA-CMM), the IntegratedProduct Development Team Model (IDP-CMM), the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model(SECAM), the Systems Engineering Capability Model (SECM), and basic ideas of the new versions of the ISO9001 and 15504. The following semantic network shows some classical approaches in the software processevaluation without any comments [Ferguson 1998].PSP SDCCR MIL-Q-9858 DOD-STD- MIL-STD2168 1679People CMMSDCE NATO DOD-STD-SA-CMM IEEE Stds. 730, AQAP1,4,9
SW-CMM
828,829,830,1012 DOD-STD-SCE 1016,1028,1058 7935AFAA-iCMM 1063 EQABaldrige MIL-STD-498ISO 15504
 
(SPICE) Trillium BS5750
ISO/IECSE-CMM CMMI
 
DO-178B
12207
EIA/IEEESSE-CMM SECM
 
J-STD-016(EIA/IS 731) IEEE 1074TickIT
ISO 9000
SECAM IPD-CMM
Series
DOD IPPDIEEE 1220 Q9000 IEEE/EIAEIA/IS 632 AF IPD Guide ISO 10011 12207MIL-STD-499B EIA 632
 
ISO 15288
Figure 1:
Dependencies of software process evaluation methods and standards
 
The CMMI is structured in the five maturity levels, the considered process areas, the specific goals (SG) andgeneric goals (GG), the common features and the specific practices (SP) and generic practices (GP). The
 processareas
are defined as follows [Kulpa 2003]:
“The Process Area is s group of practices or activities performed collectively to achieve a specificobjective.”
Such objectives could be the requirements management at the level 2, the requirements development at thematurity level 3 or the quantitative project management at the level 4. The difference between the “specific” andthe “general” goals, practices or process area is reasoning in the special aspects or areas which are considered inopposition to the general IT or company wide analysis or improvement. There are four common features:
 
The commitment to perform (CO)
 
The ability to perform (AB)
 
The directing implementation (DI)
 
The verifying implementation (VE).The CO is shown through senior management commitment, the AB is sown through the training personnel, theDI is demonstrated by managing configurations, and the VE is demonstrated via objectively evaluatingadherence and by reviewing status with higher-level management.
2
 
 The following Figure 2 shows the general relationships between the different components of the CMMIapproach.
Generic PracticesGeneric GoalsProcess Area 2Process Area 1Process Area nSpecific GoalsSpecific PracticesCapability Levels
 
Generic PracticesGeneric GoalsProcess Area 2Process Area 1Process Area nSpecific GoalsSpecific PracticesCapability Levels
 
Figure 2:
The CMMI model componentsThe CMMI gives us some guidance as to what is a required component, an expected component, and simplyinformative.
1.2 CMMI Levels
There are six capability levels (but five maturity levels), designated by the numbers 0 through 5 [SEI 2002],including the following process areas:
0.
 
 Incomplete: -1.
 
Performed:
best practices;
 2.
 
 Managed:
requirements management, project planning, project monitoring and control, supplieragreement management, measurement and analysis, process and product quality assurance;
 3.
 
 Defined:
requirements development, technical solution, product integration, verification,validation, organizational process focus, organizational process definition, organizational training,integrated project management, risk management, integrated teaming, integrated suppliermanagement, decision analysis and resolution, organizational environment for integration;
 4.
 
Quantitatively Managed:
organizational process performance, quantitative project management;
 5.
 
Optimizing:
organizational innovation and deployment, causal analysis and resolution.
 
Kulpa and Johnson consider the following
 specific goals and practices
achieving the different maturity levelsrelating to the quantification [Kulpa 2003]:
Level 2:
 Measurement and Analysis:
The purpose of Measurement and Analysis is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used tosupport management information needs. Specific Practices by Specific Goal:
 
SG1
 
 Align Measurement and Analysis Activities
: Measurement objectives and activities are alignedwith identified information needs and objectives.
 
SP1.1
 Establish Measurement Objectives:
Establish and maintain measurement objectives that arederived from identified information needs and objectives.
 
SP1.2
Specify Measures:
Specify measures to address the measurement objectives.
 
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