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Special Extract_Range Finding Procedures Using Angular Relation,Triangulation and Theodolite Operations_2

# Special Extract_Range Finding Procedures Using Angular Relation,Triangulation and Theodolite Operations_2

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Angular relation is a method to measure the height of an object by using your
optical sight or a theodolite. In principle, this is the same as MIL relation. The difference
is that you manipulate a sight or a theodolite and pan your reticle from the bottom of the
target to the top. However, it requires that the target be stationary in nature longer than the
Mil Dot method. This is of great use against material targets and increases your range
finding resolution. To use this method the sniper must bag his gun under the rear of the
rifle and settle the gun well into the bag. The gun must be steady enough so that the sniper
can manipulate the elevation knob without disturbing the lay of the gun. This method
works better when using the M1A
because of its ¼ minute of angle
settings versus the full minute of
angle settings on the M3A. Here
are the steps:
Angular relation is a method to measure the height of an object by using your
optical sight or a theodolite. In principle, this is the same as MIL relation. The difference
is that you manipulate a sight or a theodolite and pan your reticle from the bottom of the
target to the top. However, it requires that the target be stationary in nature longer than the
Mil Dot method. This is of great use against material targets and increases your range
finding resolution. To use this method the sniper must bag his gun under the rear of the
rifle and settle the gun well into the bag. The gun must be steady enough so that the sniper
can manipulate the elevation knob without disturbing the lay of the gun. This method
works better when using the M1A
because of its ¼ minute of angle
settings versus the full minute of
angle settings on the M3A. Here
are the steps:

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SPECIAL EXTRACTRANGE FINDING PROCEDURES USING ANGULAR RELATION,TRIANGULATION AND THEODOLITE OPERATIONSRANGE DETERMINATION BY ANGULAR RELATION
Angular relation is a method to measure the height of an object by using youroptical sight or a theodolite. In principle, this is the same as MIL relation. The differenceis that you manipulate a sight or a theodolite and pan your reticle from the bottom of thetarget to the top. However, it requires that the target be stationary in nature longer than theMil Dot method. This is of great use against material targets and increases your rangefinding resolution. To use this method the sniper must bag his gun under the rear of therifle and settle the gun well into the bag. The gun must be steady enough so that the snipercan manipulate the elevation knob without disturbing the lay of the gun. This methodworks better when using the M1Abecause of its ¼ minute of anglesettings versus the full minute of angle settings on the M3A. Hereare the steps:1. Carefully bag the toe of the gunand lay the gun on the target.The reticle of the scope doesnot necessarily have to be deadcenter over the target. It canoffset left or right as much asthe operator wants.2. Turn the elevation knob up ordown so that the horizontalcrosshair or any horizontalpoint of reference you wish isat the bottom of the target.Note the value of this settingon the elevation knob.3. Turn the elevation knob up while looking through the scope at the target. When thathorizontal point of reference reaches the top of the target, stop. As you turn, count theclicks that you move the knob.4. If you were using a BDC scope with 1 MOA clicks, in the above example you wouldhave a 13 Minute or click movement. If you are using a ¼ Minute scope, you will havemoved the knob 53 clicks.
Depiction of panning the MIL dot reticlefrom the bottom to the top of a Patriotmissile launcher to determine the height of target in minutes of angle.NOTE: The reticle is offset to the left only
Target Height = 7 Meters
=

SPECIAL EXTRACTRANGE FINDING PROCEDURES USING ANGULAR RELATION,TRIANGULATION AND THEODOLITE OPERATIONS
5. This method uses the same formula that you use when doing Mil Relation using theMIL dot reticle. You must convert your clicks or minutes of angle to MILS before youcan run the formula. Use the following formula:
Minutes of Angle divide by 3.375 = MILS
6. Execute the MIL relation formula using the data obtained from this method:
13.25 converted to MILS = 3.92593 MILS
7 meters X 1000 = 70003.292593 MILS=1783 Meters to Target
Now we will study what the effect of a deflection calculation error on the range tothe target. This is bounced off of the Danger Space table for that cartridge.This method may seem like a rehash of the Mil relation method that I wasn’t toofond of earlier. I don’t have a problem with Mil relation. I only have a problem inapplying that against human targets that don’t seem to sit still too long. Using that methodagainst stationary targets is great as long as the shooters are aware of the problems causedby miss-estimating the height of the target and missing the MIL error on the scope. Usingthe Angular Relation method allows the shooter to use the finer angle resolving power of the M3A or ¼ MOA capable scopes. These are powerful instruments. The finer resolutionof high power optics like US Optics allows the shooter to see edges of targets that don’t
EFFECT OF A DEFLECTION ERROR ON THE RANGE TO TARGETEffect of a 1 Minute of Angle Error / Correct Measurement = 13.00 MOA or 3.85185 MILS
Danger Space for a 7 meter target @ 1800 meters = 111 meters
!∀
13 MOA deflection = 1817.30769 Meters REAL WORLD RANGE
!∀
12 MOA deflection = 1968.75000 Meters / Outside Danger SpaceSpecification
!∀
14 MOA deflection = 1687.50000 Meters / Outside Danger SpaceSpecification
Effect of a ½ Minute of Angle Error
!∀
13 MOA deflection = 1817.30769 Meters REAL WORLD RANGE

!∀
12.5 MOA deflection = 1890.00000 Meters / Within Danger SpaceSpecification
!∀
13.5 MOA deflection = 1750.00000 Meters / Within Danger Space

SPECIAL EXTRACTRANGE FINDING PROCEDURES USING ANGULAR RELATION,TRIANGULATION AND THEODOLITE OPERATIONS
CCCCAAAA BBBB
have good contrast on them. These are conditions that other optics cannot live up to, andthose low contrast edges become impossible to define.
DETERMINING RANGE TO TARGET USING TRIANGULATION andANGULAR RELATION
We are now at the pinnacle of range findingoperations. Many times a sniper team may arrive in anoperational where there the target has not yet arrived.Indeed, in many special operations situations, unless thetarget is material and anchored to the earth, the team will tryto arrive long before the target arrives. This allows them toset up the shot on their terms instead of the enemy’s terms.They can set up the shot along the dominant wind line andthereby reduce their crosswind problems. They can also setup the shot so that the sun is behind the sniper team andreduce the target’s security apparatus ability to identify andlocated the sniper team.Triangulation is a method that uses a baseline at the sniper’s position and acompass or other angle measuring device (M-2 compasses work better than the militarylensetic). This method works when using two operators the best, although one man can dothe job. Triangulation measures the angular difference from a line that goes from the gunto the target and a line from a point 90 degrees to that line but between 20 and 50 meters tothe right or left of that gun. To do this formula you need a scientific calculator. Asmentioned way back in Chapter 3, I recommend the Hewlett Packard HP20S. Theappendix to this book contains a program sequence for programming this formula into aHP20S. The key that is important here is the SIN key. This is an extremely accuratemethod of range determination. Its main use prior to target arrival is setting up a highlydetailed range card. Here is the formula:
Range to Target (Line AC) = (AB) X SIN of angle BSIN of angle CAC =
is the gun to target line.
AB
= is the baseline cord length or in the later application, the size of the target.The baseline cord length has an important impact on the accuracy of therange determination. The larger the baseline when using a compass, the morethe accurate the ranging. A GPS makes this process easier. The followingcord lengths are based on experience. The operators take a visual range

HTI operators laying a baseline