Overview of the Structures & Functions of
Central NSPNSANSBrain & spinal cord 31 spinal & cranial sympathetic NSParasypathatic NSSomatic NSC- 8 T- 12L- 5S- 5C- 1ANS (or adrenergic of parasympatholitic response)SNS involved in fight or aggression response
Effects of SNS (
anti-cholinergic/adrenergic)1. Dilate pupil – to aware of surroundingsRelease of norepinephrine (adrenaline – cathecolamine) - medriasisAdrenal medulla (potent vasoconstrictor)2. Dry mouthIncreases body activitiesVS = Increase3. BP & HR= increasedExcept GIT – decrease GITmotility bronchioles dilated to take more oxygen4. RR increased* Why GIT is not increased = GIT is not important!5. Constipation & urinary retentionIncrease blood flow to skeletal muscles, brain & heart.I. Adrenergic Agents – Epinephrine (adrenaline)SE: SNS effectII. PNS: Beta adrenergic blocking agents (opposite of adrenergic agents) (all end in –‘lol’)
Blocks release of norepinephrine.
Decrease body activities except GIT (diarrhea)Ex. Propanolol, MetopanololSE:B – broncho spasm (bronchoconstriction)E – elicits a decrease in myocardial contraction T – treats HPNA – AV conduction slows downGiven to angina & MI – beta-blockers to rest heartAnti HPN agents:1.Beta blockers (-lol)2.Ace inhibitors (-pril) ex ENALAPRIL, CAPTOPRIL3.Calcium antagonistex CALCIBLOC or NEFEDIPINEPeripheral nervous system: cholinergic/ vagal or sympatholitic response
Effect of PNS: (
Involved in fly or withdrawal response1. Meiosis – contraction of pupils
Release of acetylcholine (ACTH)2. Increase salivation
Decrease all bodily activities except GIT (diarrhea)3. BP & HR decreased4. RR decrease – broncho constrictionI Cholinergic agents5. Diarrhea – increased GI motilityex 1. Mestinon6. Urinary frequencyAntidote – anti cholinergic agents Atropine Sulfate – S/E – SNS S/E- of anti-hpn drugs:1.orthostatic hpn2.transient headache & dizziness.-Mgt. Rise slowly. Assist in ambulation.
CNS (brain & spinal cord)
I. Cells – A. neuronsProperties and characteristicsa.Excitability – ability of neuron to be affected in external environment.b.Conductivity – ability of neuron to transmit a wave of excitation from one cell to anotherc.Permanent cells – once destroyed, cant regenerate (ex. heart, retina, brain, osteocytes)Regenerative capacityA. Labile – once destroyed cant regenerate- Epidermal cells, GIT cells, resp (lung cells). GUTB. Stable – capable of regeneration BUT limited time only ex salivary gland, pancreas cells cell of liver, kidney cellsC. Permanent cells – retina, brain, heart, osteocytes can’t regenerate.3.) Neuroglia – attached to neurons. Supports neurons. Where brain tumors are found. Types:1.Astrocyte2.OligodendriaAstrocytoma – 90 – 95% brain tumor from astrocyte. Most brain tumors are found at astrocyte.Astrocyte – maintains integrity of blood brain barrier (BBB).BBB – semi permeable / selective-Toxic substance that destroys astrocyte & destroy BBB. Toxins that can pass in BBB:1.Ammonia-liver cirrhosis.2.2. Carbon Monoxide – seizure & parkinsons.3.3. Bilirubin- jaundice, hepatitis, kernicterus/hyperbilirubenia.