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assessment midwestern

assessment midwestern

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Assessment by Midwestern Agricultural Firmsof Doing Business in China and India
Sanjeev Agarwal
MATRIC Working Paper 02-MWP 6 
February 2002
Midwest Agribusiness Trade Research and Information CenterIowa State UniversityAmes, Iowa 50011-1070www.card.iastate.edu/matric
Sanjeev Agarwal is associate professor in the Department of Marketing at Iowa State University.
This publication is available online at www.card.iastate.edu. Permission is granted to reproducethis information with appropriate attribution to the authors and to MATRIC at Iowa StateUniversity.MATRIC is supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service,U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 92-34285-7175. Any opinions, findings,conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and donot necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexualorientation, sex, marital status, disability, or status as a U.S. Vietnam Era Veteran. Any persons havinginquiries concerning this may contact the Director of Affirmative Action, 318 Beardshear Hall, 515-294-7612.
China and India are two of the world’s biggest countries and potentially largemarkets for U.S. agricultural products. This study reports the assessment by midwesternagricultural firms of doing business in the two countries. The data, collected by mailquestionnaire, suggests that China posed less of a problem than did India with respect toeconomic and market conditions, tariff and investment barriers, and physcial and culturalbarriers. On the other hand, India posed less of a problem than did China with respect tolanguage, protection of property rights, and the legal system. Firms already doingbusiness in these countries had more favorable comments than those with no previousexperience. The study also reports results of telephone interviews with selected firms.These conversations provide a more personal account of challenges faced by firms thatare testing markets in the two countries.
Key words:
business, business challenges, China, investing, India.
Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows into developing countries (including Centraland Eastern Europe) expanded considerably in the 1990s. Developing countries’ share of worldwide investment inflow was 28 percent in 1991 but increased to 41 percent by1996. The FDI inflow, in absolute dollars, increased from $44 billion in 1991 to $141billion by 1996, a growth of 220 percent. FDI inflow to Asia increased faster, from $23billion in 1991 to over $84 billion in 1996, a growth of 265 percent. As a share of totalFDI received by developing countries, almost 60 percent went to Asia. Amongdeveloping country regions, Latin (including the Caribbean) and South Americacombined was the other major recipient of foreign direct investment. Almost $39 billion(or 27 percent of all investment going to developing countries) was invested in this regionin 1996, a growth of about 151 percent between 1991 and 1996.Developing countries’ markets are attractive to western firms because demand forconsumer, as well as industrial, goods is expected to grow faster in those countries thanin the developed country markets. Of special interest to midwestern firms is the growth indeveloping countries’ food consumption, typically spurred by an increase in income.With this in mind, this study was commissioned to examine the opportunities andchallenges midwestern agribusiness firms face in doing business with developingcountries. However, to keep the scope of the study manageable, only two of the largestdeveloping countries—China and India—were studied.Both countries are home to over a billion people and are thus considered potentialmarkets for Western companies. Because of various government initiatives, China’seconomy has grown faster than that of India over the last two decades. This has caughtthe attention of Western firms. Over the last several years, China has received the highestamount of foreign direct investment of any developing country in the world. In fact, since1993, it is second only to the United States in terms of the size of inward foreign direct

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