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Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

Hormonal Regulation of Exercise

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Published by: Mozil Fadzil Kamarudin on Jun 11, 2010
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2. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise
HORMONAL REGULATION OF EXERCISEThe Endocrine System
This system includes all tissues or glands that secrete
hormones
.
Endocrine glands secrete their hormones directly into the blood.
Hormones act as chemical signals throughout the body.
Specific hormone secreted by the specialized endocrine cells & transported via theblood to specific
target cells
. Upon reaching their destinations, they can control theactivity of the target tissue.
Some hormones affect many body tissues, whereas others target specific cells ofthe body.
The Nature of Hormones
Hormones are involved in most physiological processes, so their actionsare relevant to many aspects of exercise & sport performance.
1.Chemical Classification of HormonesSteroid Hormones
Chemical structure similar to cholesterol & most are derived from it.
Lipid soluble & diffuse easily through cell membranes.
E.g. hormones secreted by adrenal cortex (cortisol & aldosterone), ovaries(estrogen & progesterone), testes (testosterone), & placenta (estrogen &progesterone).
Nonsteroid Hormones
Not lipid soluble, so they cannot easily cross cell membranes.
Subdivided into 2 groups: protein or peptide hormones & amino acid-derivativehormones.
Hormones from thyroid gland (thyroxine & triiodothyronine) & adrenal medulla(epinephrine & norepinephrine) are amino acid hormones.
All other nonsteroid hormones are protein or peptide hormones.
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2. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise
2.Hormone Action
The interaction between the hormone & its specific receptor has been compared toa lock (receptor) & key (hormone) arrangement, in which only the correct key canunlock a given action within the cells.
The combination of hormone bond to its receptor is referred to as a hormone-receptor complex.
Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located on the cell membrane, whereasreceptors for steroid hormones are found either in the cell’s cytoplasm or in itsnucleus.
Each hormone is usually specific for a single type of receptor & binds only with itsspecific receptors, thus affecting only tissues that contain those specific receptors.
The Mechanism of Action of a
 
Steroid Hormones,Leading to direct gene activation
Steroid hormones pass easily through the cell membrane.
Once inside the cell, a steroid hormone binds to its specific receptors.
The hormone-receptor complex then enters the nucleus, binds to part of the cell’sDNA, & activates certain genes. This process is referred to as
direct gene activation.
In response to this activation, mRNA is synthesized within the nucleus.
The mRNA then enters the cytoplasm & promotes protein synthesis. These proteinsmay be:
enzymes that can have numerous effects on cellular processes,
structural proteins to be used for tissue growth & repair, or
regulatory proteins that can alter enzymes function.
The Mechanism of Action of a Nonsteroid Hormones,Using a second messenger within the cell
Nonsteroid hormones cannot cross the cell membrane; they react with specificreceptors outside the cell, on the cell membrane.
A nonsteroid hormone molecule binds to its receptor and triggers a series ofenzymatic reactions that lead to the formation of an intracellular
second messenger
:cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP).
Attachment of the hormone to membrane receptor activates an enzyme, adenylatecyclase, situated within the cell membrane. This enzyme catalyzes the formation ofcAMP from cellular ATP.
cAMP can then produce specific physiological responses, which may include:
activation of cellular enzymes,
change in membrane permeability,
promotion of protein synthesis, or
stimulation of cellular secretions.
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2. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise
Thus, nonsteroid hormones typically activate the cAMP system of thecell, which then leads to changes in intracellular functions.
3.Control of Hormone Release
Hormone released can be fluctuating over short periods (an hour or less) or overlonger periods of time (daily or even monthly cycle: monthly menstrual cycle).
Most hormone secretion is regulated by a
negative feedback system.
Secretion of a hormone causes some change in the body, and this change in turninhibits further hormone secretion.
Negative feedback is the primary mechanism through which the endocrine systemmaintains homeostasis.
The
number of receptors
on a cell can be altered to increase or decrease thatcell’s sensitivity to a certain hormone.
Up-regulation
(sensitization) refers to an increase in receptors, thus the cellbecomes more sensitive to that hormone because more can be bound at one time.
Down-regulation
(desensitization) refers to a decrease in receptors, thus the cellbecomes less sensitive to that hormone because with fewer receptors, less hormonecan bind.
SUMMARY
1.Hormones can be classified as either steroid or nonsteroid.2.Steroid hormones are lipid soluble, and most are formed from cholesterol.Nonsteroid hormones are formed from proteins, or amino acids.3.Hormones are generally secreted into the blood and then through the body to exertan effect only on their target cells. They act by binding in a lock-and-key manner withspecific receptors found only in the target tissues.4.Steroid hormones pass through cell membranes and bind to receptors inside thecell. They use a mechanism called direct gene activation to cause protein synthesis.5.Nonsteroid hormones cannot enter the cells easily, so they bind to receptors on thecell membrane. This activates a second messenger within the cell, which in turn can triggernumerous cellular processes.6.A negative feedback system regulates secretion of most hormones.
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