2. Hormonal Regulation of Exercise
The interaction between the hormone & its specific receptor has been compared toa lock (receptor) & key (hormone) arrangement, in which only the correct key canunlock a given action within the cells.
The combination of hormone bond to its receptor is referred to as a hormone-receptor complex.
Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located on the cell membrane, whereasreceptors for steroid hormones are found either in the cell’s cytoplasm or in itsnucleus.
Each hormone is usually specific for a single type of receptor & binds only with itsspecific receptors, thus affecting only tissues that contain those specific receptors.
The Mechanism of Action of a
Steroid Hormones,Leading to direct gene activation
Steroid hormones pass easily through the cell membrane.
Once inside the cell, a steroid hormone binds to its specific receptors.
The hormone-receptor complex then enters the nucleus, binds to part of the cell’sDNA, & activates certain genes. This process is referred to as
direct gene activation.
In response to this activation, mRNA is synthesized within the nucleus.
The mRNA then enters the cytoplasm & promotes protein synthesis. These proteinsmay be:
enzymes that can have numerous effects on cellular processes,
structural proteins to be used for tissue growth & repair, or
regulatory proteins that can alter enzymes function.
The Mechanism of Action of a Nonsteroid Hormones,Using a second messenger within the cell
Nonsteroid hormones cannot cross the cell membrane; they react with specificreceptors outside the cell, on the cell membrane.
A nonsteroid hormone molecule binds to its receptor and triggers a series ofenzymatic reactions that lead to the formation of an intracellular
:cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP, or cAMP).
Attachment of the hormone to membrane receptor activates an enzyme, adenylatecyclase, situated within the cell membrane. This enzyme catalyzes the formation ofcAMP from cellular ATP.
cAMP can then produce specific physiological responses, which may include:
activation of cellular enzymes,
change in membrane permeability,
promotion of protein synthesis, or
stimulation of cellular secretions.