IOP Publishing Ltd 2002All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, storedin a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permissionof the publisher. Multiple copying is permitted in accordance with the termsof licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency under the terms of itsagreement with Universities UK (UUK).
British Library Cataloguing-in-PublicationData
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.ISBN 0 7503 0839 7
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData are available
First edition 1980Second edition 1986Reprinted 1987Reprinted with corrections 1990Reprinted 1991Third edition 1992Reprinted 1993Reprinted with corrections 1996Reprinted 1998, 2001Fourth edition 2002Commissioning Editor: James RevillProduction Editor: Simon LaurensonProduction Control: Sarah PlentyCover Design: Fr´ed´erique SwistPublished by Institute of Physics Publishing, wholly owned by The Institute of Physics, LondonInstitute of Physics Publishing, Dirac House, Temple Back, Bristol BS1 6BE, UKUS Ofﬁce: Institute of Physics Publishing, The Public Ledger Building, Suite1035, 150 South Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106, USATypeset in the UK by Text 2 Text, Torquay, DevonPrinted in the UK by MPG Books Ltd, Bodmin, Cornwall