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1986

1986

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http://www.ukrweekly.com
The Ukrainian Weekly was founded in 1933 to serve the Ukrainian American community and to function as a vehicle for communication of that community's concerns to the general public in the United States. Today the English-language newspaper publishes news about Ukraine and Ukrainians around the world; its readership, though mostly North American, is worldwide. The Ukrainian Weekly's editorial offices are in Parsippany, NJ; a full-time press bureau is located in Kyiv, capital of Ukraine. It is published by the Ukrainian National Association, a fraternal benefit life insurance society, based in Parsippany, NJ. Read more at www.ukrweekly.com
http://www.ukrweekly.com
The Ukrainian Weekly was founded in 1933 to serve the Ukrainian American community and to function as a vehicle for communication of that community's concerns to the general public in the United States. Today the English-language newspaper publishes news about Ukraine and Ukrainians around the world; its readership, though mostly North American, is worldwide. The Ukrainian Weekly's editorial offices are in Parsippany, NJ; a full-time press bureau is located in Kyiv, capital of Ukraine. It is published by the Ukrainian National Association, a fraternal benefit life insurance society, based in Parsippany, NJ. Read more at www.ukrweekly.com

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Published by: The Ukrainian Weekly on Jun 11, 2010
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1986: A LOOK BACK
Human rights in the
USSR
In the human-rights arena, wewitnessed some interesting developments in all areas of civil, religiousand national dissent. GeneralSecretary
Mikhail
Gorbachev's newpolicy of encouraging "glasnost" or
openness,
seemed, at least for propaganda purposes, to have spreadto the area concerning prisoners of
conscience,
mostly those well-known in the West. Western pres
sure
helped
prompt
the release thisyear of the better-known human-rights activists and leaders of theHelsinki movement in the
USSR,
while several previously unknown
dissidents
fell
subject to arrest andincarceration.Late 1986 ushered in a new decade in the still struggling Helsinkimovement in Ukraine. While membersof the External Representationof the Ukrainian Helsinki Groupmarked the group's 10th anniver
sary
on November 9, 17 of thegroup's now-known 40 memberscontinued to serve sentences in
prisons,
labor camps and internalexile. Mykola Horbal, Vitaliy Kalyny-chenko,Ivan Kandyba, Yaroslav
Lesiv,
Lev Lukianenko, Myroslav
tion
marking the anniversary was
also
held in New York at the Ukrainian Institute of America on December 16.The Weekly joined other Ukrainian organizations in the West incommemorating the UHG's 10thbirthday by devoting its November9
issue
to the group, its concerns asrevealed in its memoranda, as well
as
its membership.There were some encouraging
signs
about the Helsinki movement.Samvydav recently obtained by theUHG's external representatives revealed a new member, Vasyl Kor-nylo, a 66-year-oid physician
from
the Lviv oblast, who had joined thegroup before his arrest and imprisonment in February 1980 for circulating Ukrainian nationalist literature. The revelation indicated
that
there may be more Helsinki monitors unknown to the
West.Mr.
Kor-nylo is serving a 10-year sentence in
a
special-regimen labor camp to befollowed by five years in internalexile.Olha Heyko Matusevych, one ofthe UHG's youngest members atage 33 and a philologist, was re-Ivan Kandyba, Vitaliy Kalynychenko and Lev Lukianenko were cited by newlyreleased Soviet dissident Yuri Orlov as three Ukrainian Helsinki monitorswhose plight was most terrible.Marynovych, Mykola Matusevych,
Mart
Nikius, Vasyl Ovsienko, Vikto-
ras
Petkus, Oksana Popovych, Mykola Rudenko, Yuriy Shukhevych,Danylo Shumuk, Vasyl Striltsiv and
Yosyf Zisels
continued their struggle.Thanks to the efforts of Ameri
cans
for Human Rights in Ukraine(AHRU), the UHG's 10th anniver
sary
served as the occasion for the
U.S.
Senate and House of
Represen
tatives to
pass
companion resolutions in October calling on thepresident and secretary of state to
pressure
the Soviets
into
releasingthe Ukrainian and other Helsinkimonitors
from
incarceration andallowing those who desire to emigrate to do
so.
AHRU also organizedwhat turned out to be a very
suc
cessful
reception for the UHG'sexternal reps as well as for membersof the House and Senate, and otherdignitaries on September 23 inWashington.On October 15, five members ofthe Moscow and Ukrainian Helsinkigroups were reunited in Washingtonat a luncheon and
press
conferenceat the Capitol. Yuri Orlov, LudmillaAlexeyeva, Alexander Ginzburg,Nina Strokata and Nadia Svitlychnaurged legislators and the newsmedia to remember those Helsinkimonitors and other rights activistsstill suffering in the
USSR
for theirbeliefs.An informative panelahd recef^leased
from
a Mordovian labor campon March 12
after
she completed herlatest
term
of three
years,
which sheserved immediately following herfirst term, also of three years. Shewasgranted permission to live inKiev
with
her seriously ill mother forone year.News also reached the West
that
another UHG member, VasylSichko,who was released
from
prison in thesummer of 1985 was suffering
from
tuberculosisand was reportedlybeing treated in a special sanatorium in western Ukraine.Perhaps the saddest news regard-ing relatives of UHG membersreached the West early in the year,
that
is,
news of the untimely death ofOlena Antoniv
Krasivska
on February 2 in the collision of a
taxi
cab,truck and streetcar in Lviv. The 48-year-old physician was the
wife
ofUHG member and longtime politicalprisonerZinoviy
Krasivsky,
who hadcompleted his latest
term
of imprisonment only a few months beforeher death.There were also reports in October
that
the Soviets may allow 72-year-old veteran Ukrainian politicalprisoner and UHG member DanyloShumuk to emigrate to Canada tojoin his nephew in British Columbia
after
his scheduled release in January 1987.The leaders of the officially defunct Moscow Helsinki
Monitoring
Group found themselves thrust
into
the limelight this year
within
thecontext of U.S.-Soviet relations.Anatoly Shcharansky, the 38-year-old human-rights activist andHelsinki monitor, was released
from
Chistopol prison on February 12 inan elaborately planned East-Westprisonerswap. He joined his wife,Avital, in Jerusalem, and was joinedthere by the rest of his
family from
Moscow in August.Moscow Helsinki Group leaderand founder Yuri Orlov, 62, wasreleased
from
internal exile in Yakutia and was forced to emigrate to theUnited States
with
his wife, IrinaValitova, in connection
with
theNicholas Daniloff
affair.Nobel
laureate and Helsinki monitor Andrei Sakharov and his wife,
Elena
Bonner, a founding member,arrived home in Moscow on December 23
after
they received an officialpardon
from
General SecretaryGorbachevon December 16 andwere
permitted
to leave their placeof exile in the closed city of Gorky.Ms. Bonner had been allowed totravel earlier this year to the West,namely
Italy
and the United States,on a six-month
visa
for medical
treatment
for heart and eye ailments
after
Dr. Sakharov went on a hungerstrike to demand the
trip.
According to Mr. Orlov, the re
lease
of the Nobel-prize-winning
physicist
and human-rights advocate was probably due to Sovietembarrassment over the tragic deathof another Moscow Helsinki Groupfounding member, Anatoly
Mar
chenko,on December 8 in a Chistopol prison hospital. Mr. Marchenko,48, had been on a hunger strikedemanding the release of all Sovietprisonersof conscience, amongother things,
since
August 4 whenhe penned a
letter
to the delegates atthe Vienna Helsinki review conference,vowing to maintain his fast
until
the meeting's conclusion.There had been reports
that
Mr.Marchenko was on the verge ofbeing released early
from
a 15-yearsentence for anti-Soviet agitationand propaganda.Another well-known Soviet
dissi
dent, Anatoly Koryagin, an activist inthe Helsinki-related Working Com
mission
to investigate the Abuse ofPsychiatry for Political Purposes,was reportedly rearrested in Chistopol prison in October 1985, according to reports we received in Marchof this year. Mr. Koryagin, who isservinga 12-year sentence, wasnominated twice this year for the
Nobel
Peace Prize.Two members of the renewedGeorgian Helsinki Group, TenghizGudavaand Emmanuel Tvaladze,were
tried
and sentenced in early
Ju
ne for "anti-Soviet agit-prop." BothMr. Gudava, who received a 10-yearsentence,and Mr. Tvaladze, whowas sentenced to eight years' incarceration, were members of thePhantom musical group.Iryna
Ratushynska,
the renownedSoviet poet and human-rights advocate
from
Kiev, was prematurelyreleased
from
prison in October onthe eve of the Iceland summit andwas
permitted
to travel for medical
treatment
to Great Britain,
with
herUkrainian husband, Ihor Herash-chenko. Ms. Ratushynska, who wasservingthe
fourth
year of a 12-yearsentence,was transferred
from
aMordovian labor camp for women to
a
KGB detention center in Kiev inAugust; where she was held'
t>ntil
her release. She and Mr. Herash-chenko arrived in London on December 18 and announced theirintention to stay.Persecutionof the leaders of theUkrainian Catholic (Uniate) Churchreportedly continued. News of
Yosyp
Terelia's incarceration inCamp No. 36 — which has come tobe known as a "death camp" — nearKuchino in the Perm region of
Rus
sia,
reached The Weekly in January,
six
months
after
the leader of the
Initiative
Group for the Defense ofthe Rights of Believers and the
Church
in Ukraine was given a 12-year sentence for "anti-Soviet agitprop."We also obtained details in March
from
the
trial
of Ukrainian sculptorPetro Ruban, who was
tried
in Pry-luky, Chernihiv region, in December1985 and was sentenced to nine
years'
strict-regimen labor campand five years' exile.Anew incident of religious persecution was reported in July. PavelProtsenko, a young Orthodoxchurch activist and librarian
from
Kiev,was arrested on June 4 at thehome of a nun, Sister Serafima. Hewas
tried
and sentenced in Kiev onNovember 18-19 to three years in alabor camp for
writing
a manuscriptdetailing the persecution of members of the
Russian
Orthodox
Church,
which was found on hisperson upon his arrest.Ukrainian peace activist and afounding member of the "unofficial"yet well-known Moscow Group forEstablishment of Trust Between the
East
and the West, also called theMoscow Trust Group, AlexandrShatravka, was released on June 23
from
a Siberian labor camp wherehe spent the last five years for "anti-Soviet activity" and was exiled to theUnited States.Ukrainian dissident, writer andauthor of a manuscript called "TheRight to Live," Yuriy Badzio, began
his
five-year
term
of exile in Yakutiaon May 18
after
serving seven yearsof detention in Mordovian labor
camps.
He was arrested in April1979 for the book, a detailed
analysis
of the cultural, economic and politi
cal
situation in Ukraine.Kateryna ZarytskaSoroka,a long
time
member of the Organization ofUkrainian Nationalists (OUN) whospent some 30 years in Polish andSoviet prisons and camps, died onAugust 29 in western Ukraine
after
aprolonged
illness.
The
wife
ofanother veteran political prisonerand OUN activist Mykhailo Soroka,who had died in a labor camp in1971, Ms. Zarytska headed the U-krainian Red
Cross
in Lviv during
World
War II, providing aid to members of the Ukrainian InsurgentArmy (UPA). She died at age 72 andwasburied in
Lviv's
Lychakivskycemetery.Another veteran Ukrainian politi
cal
prisoner and UPA member,
Vasyl
Pidhorodetsky, was arrested andsentenced in late 1985 to one year ofimprisonment, according to reports
that
reached The Weekly in March.Mr. Pidhorodetsky has served some34 years in camps and prisons for
his
involvement in the security
ser
viceof the Ukrainian InsurgentArmy and OUN.Three-year-old Estonian
Kaisa
Randpere was finally
permitted
inNovember to join
her
defectorpa-rents in^Sweden
after
two years of
 
1986: A LOOK BACK
Soviet refusals to grant her an exit
visa.
Finally, Mr. Gorbachev's "glas-nost" affected the field of literatureand it was learned
that
Oles Hon-What was by far the biggest newsof 1986 was the tragic nuclear
disas
ter at the Chornobyl power station inUkraine in late April, which sent
shock
waves throughout the entireworld.At 1 a.m. on April 25, the staff atthe Chornobyl nuclear power plantstarted to reduce power on the No. 4reactor as part of a reportedly routine maintenance procedure, whichlater was revealed by Soviet authorities to have been part of a
series
ofreportedly unauthorized experiments by plant personnel on thereactor's turbine-generators.
By
all accounts, the mood at thesprawling complex was relaxed.Spring had already come to Ukraine,and the nearby town of Prypiat,where the plant workers lived inuniform rows of high-rise apartment
blocks,
was reportedly getting readyfor the traditional May 1 holiday,which this year coincided
with
theOrthodox Easter.About 24 hours later, an explo
sion
blew the roof off Chornobyl'sNo. 4 reactor, heaving a
1,000-ton
concrete slab
that
covered the coreinto the reactor well. In
less
than*,thK$e<sQ6bndSi av&ocondJekplosion
took
place, which ignited a rash offires and shot a gigantic burst ofradioactive
gases
a half-mile intothe sky
that drifted
north
across
theSoviet Union and Europe. Shiftingwinds and continuing radiation
emissions
from
the plant eventuallyspread over the rest of the SovietUnion and as far away as the western United States.Eight months ago, what has beenlabelled the world's worst nuclearpower accident struck at Chornobyl, contaminating hundreds ofsquare miles in Ukraine, Byelorus
sia
and even parts of northern Poland and Scandinavia, dischargingradioactivity
across
the continentand inflicting medical and environmental damage
that
may continuefor generations.From the start, the Soviet authorities confronted an unprecedented
crisis:
handling a major
fire
insideone nuclear reactor while enormousamounts of radiation were
escap
ing into the atmosphere,
with
a
second
reactor standing only yardsaway and two more nearby.The disaster at Chornobyl notonly revealed an epic human dramaof striving to cope
with
invisiblenuclear hazards, but also disclosedmuch about the nature of the relationship between the Soviet government and the population.The Soviet government reportedly knew enough about the disasterwithin 12 hours to
treat
it as a major
crisis
and set up a high-level government commission to ascertain thedamage and direct recovery operations. But Moscow did not acknowledge to its own citizens and theworld
that
the accident had occurred for another 48 hours andremained silent about the
full
extentof the disaster for nearly two weeks.
For
part of the time, Soviet
scientistschar's
controversial novel "Sobor"(Cathedra!), which deals
with
thedestruction of Ukrainian culture,wasto be reissued in the SovietUnion in the
Russian
and Ukrainianlanguages.were uncertain
that
the measuresthey were taking to bring the reactorunder control would actually work.In the aftermath of Chornobyl,Moscow has sought to rebuild itscredibility by reporting more fullyon the disaster at a special conference of the International AtomicEnergyAgency on the Chornobylaccident in Vienna in August, wherethe Soviets submitted a 382-pagedetailed report on the
causes,
cleanup efforts, medical, environmentaland energy effects of the disaster.In this report, the Soviets laid theblame for the accident essentiallyon human error — safety violationsby workers conducting an unauthorized experiment — but later ad
mitted
that
part of blame was alsodue to design flaws in the reactor,which was essentially built for commercial use.But it was the human
toll
that
caused
the most concern. TheSoviets have stuck to their officialreport of 31 dead,
with
two reportedly dying in the explosion and the rest
passing
away in a Moscow hospitalafter efforts to
treat
them for heavyradiation exposure and burns., The Weekly had heard reports
from
sources
in Ukraine of thou
sands,
maybe up to 15,000, dead atthe
time
of the disaster, and there
has
remained scepticism amongUkrainians in the West about theofficial death
toll
of 31, because ofthe Soviet track record of coveringup disasters and their
consequences.
Dr. Robert Gale, a bone-marrow specialist
from
UCLA,
entered into the picture soon after theaccidentwhen the Soviets requested his, and only his, aid in treatingthe Chornobyl victims
that
wereshipped off to Moscow.
More
than half of these officialdead,who were buried in a cemeteryjust outside of Moscow and hundreds of miles away
from
theirhomesand family in Ukraine, werefiremen who braved the flames andradiation after the explosions. Official reports also said
that
six monthsafter the accident 30 remained
hos
pitalized and
that
a
total
of 300
persons
were exposed to radiationlevelsfar above those considered tobe safe and many thousands mayhave been exposed to
doses
whoselong-term effects are uncertain.The Soviets have been subject tomuch criticism for their handling ofthe Chornobyl aftermath. They reportedly began evacuating the
49,000
residents of nearby Prypiat 36hours after the accident, a period inwhich the people were probablyexposedto high
doses
of radiation.Confusion and panic spread amongthe evacuees and many familiesbecame separated, some for weeks.The authorities set up an artificial18-mile evacuation zone around thestricken plant and all the evacueeswere reportedly given medical
checks
and iodine pills.
By
the end of the summer, theofficial figure of the number ofpeople evacuated
from
Ukraine andneighboring Byelorussia was135,000, including some
from
out
side
the 18-mile danger zone, in so-called "hot spots" of radiation. Inother areas only children weremoved out temporarily —
64,000from
Byelorussia and
250,000 from
Kiev,70 miles south. Most of thesechildren were sent to Pioneer summer camps throughout the SovietUnion, while some moved in
with
relatives who lived far
from
theaccident area. All of the childrenreturned in September to start thenew school year, including some ofthe children of Prypiat who wereaccepted into
schools
in Kiev.The evacuees, who were kept intemporary housing until some wereallowed to settle into new communities built for them
such
as ZelenyMys in the Kiev region, were reportedly compensated financiallyby the Soviets, who also opened up
a
special Chornobyl aid fund for donations
from
Soviet citizens for thevictims and evacuees.Probably the most serious
conse
quence is the effect on the health ofthe population. Some Western phy
sicians,
including Dr. Gale, predicted that, based on the Sovietreport in Vienna.up to
40,000
excess
deaths,
that
is outside the normaldeath rate, would occur
as
a result ofthe accident. The Soviets them
selves
said they expected some
6,500
excess
deaths over 70 yearsresulting
from
direct radiation expo
sure,
in addition to some
30,000
to
40,000
additional deaths
from
indirect exposure to radioactivecontamination of the food supplyand
such.
The Ukrainian community in theWest, particularly in the UnitedStates and Canada, was quick torespond to news of the tragic
disas
ter
that
struck the land of their
ancestors
and most immediatelyoffered
assistance,
medical andmonetary, to the victims, but theiroffers were categorically refused bythe Soviets, who continued to labelit an internal matter and insistedthey could manage on their own. In
response
to this, as well as thefrustration
felt
by many who wereunable to contact relatives in Kievand other parts of Ukraine, as well asthe lack of detailed information,Ukrainians angrily
took
to the streetsin organized protest and demonstrationsin
front
of the UnitedNations and the Soviet Mission inNew York, in Chicago, Washington,Ottawa, Philadelphia and other
cities.
Ukrainian groups held news
con
ferences and prayer vigils to attractnews media to publicize the Sovietmishandling of the
disaster
and prayfor the victims and their families.Ukrainians in Washington held aprotest in
front
of the offices of U.S.News and World Report magazinefor its callously inaccurate May 12cover headline,
"Nightmarfe
in
Rus
sia,"
which the journal later retracted after meeting
with
local community representatives.The Soviets have restarted reactors No. 1 and 2 after havingentombed the damaged reactor No.4 in concrete. The clean-up work atthe plant has also aroused muchhostility,
with
reports of executionsof conscripts, mostly
Estonians,
refusing to do the dangerous work.Several thousand Estonians wereapparently singled out for
con
scription for Chornobyl clean-upwork and extention of their duty
from
the usual two months to sixmonths, which has caused discon
tent
to grow among the workers, aswell as Estonians in general.Abook on the
causes
and effectsof the Chornobyi disaster by Dr.David Marples, a research associateat the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the University ofAlberta, titled, "Chornobyl and Nuclear Power in the
USSR,"
waspublished by St. Martin's
Press
inNew York this fall and was launchedat a reception at the UkrainianInstitute of America on December 9.Dr. Marples is currently on a tour ofseveralU.S. cities to publicize hisbook.
The
Helsinki
process
The Helsinki Accords review pro- in April and May in Bern, Switzer-
cess,
or the Conference on Security land, and the more significant full-and Cooperation in Europe, con-
scale
Helsinki review conference,tinued in 1986
with
two majorevents: which was officially opened in earlythe six-week Experts
Meeting
on November in Vienna.Human Contacts, which
took
place The six-week Bern meeting onA
press
conference in Vienna commemorated the 10th anniversaries of theUkrainian and Lithuanian Helsinki
Groups.
Among those in attendance wereformer Soviet dissidents Leonid
Plyushch,
Yuri Orlov and Nadia Svitlychna,
Sens.
Claiborne Pell, Paul Sarbanes and Dennis Deconcini and Rep. StenyHoyer.
Chornobyl
nuclear accident
 
1986: A LOOK BACK
human contacts ended on May 27without agreement on a final document as the United States, whosedelegation was headed by Ambas
sador
Michael Novak, stood alone in
its
opposition to the
"consensus
statement."The U.S. refused to approve thedocument, saying it would weakenrather than strengthen the pledgesmade at Helsinki in 1975 by 35 states
from
the
East
and West.The Bern meeting was the last in a
series
of experts meetings mandated by the most recent Helsinki
Accords
review conference held in
Madrid
in 1980-1983.In Bern, representatives of 35states covered
such
topics as familyreunification, exchange of information, travel for personal or professional reasons, and postal and telephone communications.During the Bern conference, theUnited States raised many specific
cases
of family reunification andemigration. Among the
cases
of
persons
wishing to emigrate werethose of two.Ukrainians: Yuriy
Shukhevych,
a human-rights activistand Helsinki monitor who has beenimprisoned for over 33 years andwho has relatives in Australia; andAleksanderMaksymov, who renounced his Soviet citizenship andsubsequently served two terms ofimprisonment for his emigrationefforts.During a May 13
discussion
onmail and postal interference, the
U.S.
delegation brought up the
issue
of contacts in the aftermath of theChornobyl nuclear power plantaccident in Ukraine.The Vienna follow-up conferenceconvened officially on November 4in the Hofburg. The U.S. delegation
is
headed by Ambassador WarrenZimmermann, and includes twoUkrainians as members: HelsinkiCommissionstaffer Orest Deycha-kiwsky and Julian
Kulas,
a publicmember.The U.S. continued to underscorethe plight of Ukrainian politicalprisonersin its statements concerning human-rights provisions duringplenary
sessions.
Ambassador Zimmermann mentioned the deaths offour Ukrainian dissidents in campsin 1985, including three Helsinkimonitors: Oleksiy Tykhy, Vasyl
Stus,
Yuriy Lytvyn and Valeriy
Mar
chenko,in his November 14 statement on national minorities in the
USSR
He added
that
three otherUkrainian dissidents, Mykola Hor-
bai,
Ivan Kandyba and MykhailoHoryn, were very ill and were
ser
ving lengthy sentences for theirpolitical activity. He also stated
that
he knew of some 400 religious acti
vists
who were imprisoned in theSoviet Union, including UkrainianUniates.Ukrainian organizations
from
Europe, Canada and the United Statessent representatives to Vienna tolobby for human and national rightsand participate in both the officialpart of the conference as well as theparallel and simultaneous "Helsinki
Mirror,"
series
of unofficial seminarsand
press
conferences sponsoredby Resistance International.The Ukrainians in Vienna includedrepresentatives of the UkrainianHelsinki
Monitoring
Group's External Representation, grass-rootshuman-rights groups, youth organizations, news
services,
politicalgroups and national representativebodies,all under the leadership andguidance of the Human Rights Com
mission
of the World Congress of
Free
Ukrainians.Before the conference had evenbegun, three of the UHG's externalrepresentatives, Gen. Petro Grigo-renko, Leonid Plyushch and NadiaSvitlychna,
issued
an appeal to the
CSCE
delegates calling for athorough review of Soviet human-rights abuses and demanding
that
Ukraine be included as a
full
andequal participant in the Helsinki
process.
They also demanded
that
Ukraine be represented as an independent party in all internationalbodies concerned
with
disarmament and nuclear energy, and
that
embassies
and consulates of theHelsinki Accords' signatories beopened in Ukraine and foreign jour
nalists
be accredited to Ukraine.It was these very demands
that
theUkrainian representatives in Viennasought to publicize through a
series
of news conferences, meetings
with
delegates, demonstrations andother activities during the first twoweeks of the
CSCE.
The Ukrainiandelegation held a news conferenceto commemorate the 10th anniver
sary
of the Ukrainian and LithuanianHelsinki Groups on November 10 inthe Vienna
Marriott
Hotel, whichserved as the group's headquarters.The
press
conference, which washeld together
with
the LithuanianWorld Community and the Lithuanian Information Center, was
des
cribed as "a historic reunion offounders and exiled members of theHelsinki monitoring groups." It waspresided over by Rep. Steny Hoyer
(D-Md.),
co-chairman of the
Congressional
delegation to the
CSCE
and included speeches by Ginte
Damusis,
director of the LithuanianInformation Center, who spoke ofthe
fate
of the Lithuanian HelsinkiGroup,Yuri Orlov, Ms. Svitlychna,Mr.
Plyushch,
andTomas Venclova,one of the founders of the LithuanianHelsinki Group. Ambassador SamWise, deputy head of the U.S.delegation, also spoke on the plightof all the Helsinki monitors in theSoviet Union. Ambassador Wisestated during the
press
conference
that
Ambassador Zimmermann,head of the U.S. delegation, hadmentioned the 10th anniversary ofthe UHG in his remarks during theopening plenary
session
earlier
that
day, and had called it the mostseverely persecuted of all the Helsinki Groups in the
USSR.
Alsopresent were
Sens.
Claiborne Pell,Dennis Deconcini and Paul Sar-
banes.
Perhapsthe biggest news to comeout of the conference so far hasbeen the Soviet -delegation's proposalto hold a conference onhuman rights in Moscow. U.S. Am
bassador
Zimmermann
told
membersof the Ukrainian delegation inVienna
that
the U.S. was interestedin
such
a conference under certainconditions, including the right fornon-governmental organizationsand Western
press
organizations toparticipate without restrictions.
As
it stands, the delegates inVienna were in the midst of the firstreview phase,
that
is the review ofimplementation, when they brokeup for the holidays on December 19.What will come of this review conference for Ukrainians remains to be
seen.
Documentation of the famine
Several important developmentshaving to do
with
the UkrainianFamine of 1932-33 occurred thisyear. Perhaps the most important
was
the long-awaited publication of'The Harvest of Sorrow: SovietCollectivization and the Terror-Famine"
written
by Robert
Con
quest, a senior
research
fellow at theHoover Institution at Stanford University. This 412-page study haswon worldwide acclaim
since
itspublication October 7 by OxfordUniversity
Press.
Dr. Conquest hascompleted a carefully researchedand finely
written
study, accordingto many distinguished
scholars,
who reviewed the book for variousnewspapers and magazines.Dr. Conquest, who is also theauthor of several other books havingto do
with
the Stalinist era, includingthe renowned "The Great Terror,"traveled nationwide on a publicitytour throughout the month of October. He was interviewed by some ofthe nation's most prominent newspapersas well.The book, sponsored by the Harvard Ukrainian Research Instituteand the Ukrainian National
Associa
tion, has gone into its second print
ing,
which will bring
total
copies inprint to 12,000. During his New Yorkappearance, the author stated themain impetus for writing a book onthe famine was "to educate myself."Dr. Conquest's book was alsocited as one of the 200 most note-able books of 1986 by The New YorkBook Review.In other events related to thefamine, the award-winning documentary "Harvest of Despair" wasfinally shown on American televi
sion.
Aired September 24 on a
special
edition of William F. Buckley's"Firing Line," which appears weeklyon PBS, the showing of the
film
proved to be controversial because
PBS
authorities made the decisionto air it only if its showing wascoupled
with
a panel
discussion
on
its
accuracy.
Thus,
three guestswere invited to participate in the
discussion:
Dr. Robert Conquest,Harrison Salisbury, longtime correspondent of The New York Timesand "renowned Sovietologist," andChristopherHitchens, Washingtoncolumnist for the London Spectatorand also for The
Nation
magazine.On balance, the broadcast of the
film
plus the
discussion
precedingand following the
film
did much toenlighten the general public aboutthe famine. At the end of its show
ing,
Mr. Buckley, who saw the
film
for the first time,
told
the audience:"Well, that's about as harrowing anhour this side of Dachau
that
I canimagine" and the three guests stated
that
the
film
was accurate.Mr. Salisbury managed to furtheralienate himself
from
the Ukrainiancommunity this year when, duringthe
dicussion,
he went into a lengthy
discourse
about the history ofUkraine in response to a questionposed by Mr. Buckley about therelationship between Ukraine and
Russia
in 1932. As Dr. Conqueststarted replying, Mr. Salisbury interjected and began equating Ukraine
with
Russia.
He stated: "The Ukraine, of
course,
is
really the cradle of
Russian
civilization and the Church. Kiev was theplace where
Russia
as an
entity
firstcame into being, and the earlyemperors and the early Church wereall centered there...""The Ukraine, anyway, was reallythe cradle of
Russia.
I think there isno question about that. And —- wecan'tgo over the whole history -—butthe first Christian part of
Russia
wasthe Ukraine."
"So
when we
talk
about theUkraine and
Russia,
we are notreally talking about separate countries.We are talking about two partsof a country or a civilization
that
moved on different waves."
This
statement prompted an angry response
from
many membersof the Ukrainian community. Afterreceiving numerous complaints, Mr.Salisbury sent out a
form
letter tothose individuals who wrote him,which stated, in part: "Some of youseem to think I confuse
Russia
andthe Ukraine. Rest
assured,
I understand and deeply respect the diffe
rence.
As many of you well known Ihave traveled the length and breadthof the Ukraine. A wonderful land.Kievis one of my favorite cities in thewhole world."Some of you seem to object tomy description of Kiev, as 'themother city of all the
Russians.'
Were I of Ukrainian origin I wouldproudly acclaim Kiev's role in Slaviccivilization, culture, religion, the
arts.
If Kiev is not first — then who
is?"
There is still no indication
from
any of the networks
that
they areinterested in airing "Harvest ofDespair," which was produced forthe Ukrainian Famine ResearchCommittee of Canada by SlavkoNowytski and Yurij Luhovy in 1983.The
film
has won several awards inthe United States and Canada in thepast two years, and garnered anAcademy Award nomination.Yet another important first occurred in regard to the famine. Aneducators' institute which focusedon the famine was held on November 8. One hundred and eighty-six
teachers,
154 of them non-Ukrai
nians,
attended the one-day seminar held in Chicago. Twenty-sixparticipants
took
the seminar forgraduate credit through NorthernIllinois University.The seminar, which was organized by Dr.
Myron
B. Kuropas, vice-president of the Ukrainian National
Association,
was officially called"The Ukrainian Forced Famine: AnThe long-awaited book by RobertConquest,"The Harvest of Sorrow."

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