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FSU - Learning Theories and Strategies Guide

FSU - Learning Theories and Strategies Guide



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Published by Travis_Grant_8722
This study guide is a companion to the Psychology of Learning for Instruction by Marcy P. Driscoll. These four documents have been created as job aids (study guides) for the following four courses: EME5601, EME5603, EDP5216, EDP5217. The courses did not present the students with such documentation, and thus, I created said documentation for myself and for those students who would take these courses after me.
This study guide is a companion to the Psychology of Learning for Instruction by Marcy P. Driscoll. These four documents have been created as job aids (study guides) for the following four courses: EME5601, EME5603, EDP5216, EDP5217. The courses did not present the students with such documentation, and thus, I created said documentation for myself and for those students who would take these courses after me.

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Published by: Travis_Grant_8722 on Jun 11, 2010
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 This study guide is a companion to the
Psychology of Learning for Instruction
by Marcy P. Driscoll.
Instructional psychologists
areconcerned with how best toenhance learning. They rely on thefindings of psychological andinstructional research to solveinstructional problems and makedecisions about instructionalpractice.
Instructional theory
isidentifying methods that will bestprovide the conditions under whichlearning goals will most likely beattained.
refers to thedeliberate arrangement of learningconditions to promote attainmentof some intended goal.
is a set of hypothesesthat apply to all instances of aparticular phenomenon
Instructional strategy continuum(expository instruction at one endand discovery instruction at theother). Looking at the same issuefrom another perspective, thereare three levels of guidance ininstruction:
Pure discovery - The studentreceives representativeproblems to solve with minimalteacher guidance (Mayer,2003).
Guided Discovery - The studentreceives problems to solve, butthe teacher provides hints anddirections about how to solvethe problem to keep the studenton track (Mayer, 2003).
Expository - all information islaid out in front of the learner. The final answer or rule ispresented to the student
Four General KnowledgeCategories
Factual knowledge
Conceptual knowledge
Procedural knowledge
Metacognitive knowledge
Behaviorism /Objectivism
 Theorists: Bandura, Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike
Views human mind as a black boxof complex, poorly-understoodmental processes that ultimatelyare manifested in outwardbehaviors
Learning happens when a correctresponse is demonstrated followingthe presentation of a specificenvironmental stimulus
Learning can be detected byobserving an organism over aperiod of time
Emphasis is on observable andmeasurable behaviors
Instruction utilizes consequencesand reinforcement of learnedbehaviors
Believes behavior is guided bypurpose
Cues are antecedents to behaviorand set the conditions for itsoccurrence
Objectivism – knowledge comesabout through experience. Throughempirical evidence. Knowledge isrepresented in a learners mind asan ever-closer approximation of thereal world.
Embedded Theories
Pavlov's Classical Conditioning
Skinner's Operant Conditioning
Stimulus-Response Theory
 Thorndike's Laws andConnectionism
Information Processing
Representations of theLearning Process
Reinforced Behavior
Antecendent BehaviorConsequence (ABC)
Sequenced knowledge and skillspresented in logical limited steps
Goals of Instruction
Communicate or transfer behaviorsrepresenting knowledge and skillsto the learner (does not considermental processing)
Instruction is to elicit the desiredresponse from the learner who ispresented with a target stimulus
Learner must know how to executethe proper response as well as theconditions under which theresponse is made
Instructional Models
Computer-based instruction
Contract learning
Individualized instruction (e.g.,Personalized System of Instruction)
Programmed instruction
Information processing model
Systems approach
Implications for InstructionalDesign
Behavioral objectives
Dick & Carey instructional designmodel
Performance-based assessment
Systems models
Events of Instruction
Instructional / LearningStrategies
Instructional cues to elicit correctresponse
Practice paired with target stimuli
Reinforcement for correctresponses
Building fluency (get responsescloser and closer to correctresponse)
Multiple opportunities/trials (Drilland practice)
Discrimmination (recalling facts)
Generalization (defining andillustrating concepts)
Associations (applyingexplanations)
Chaining (automatically performinga specified procedure)
> THEORY: RadicalBehaviorism
Learner outcomes – observablebehavior
Role of the learner – active in theenvironment, consequences thatfollow behavior determine whetherit is repeated
Role of the instructor – identifylearning goals. Determinecontingencies of reinforcements,implement program of behaviorchange. Negotiate all of these withthe learner’s input
Inputs or preconditions to learning– environmental conditions serveas discriminative stimuli, cueingwhich behavior is appropriate toperform
Process of learning – notspecifically addressed in thistheory. All learning is assumed tobe explained in terms of observable behavior andenvironmental events surroundingits occurrence
> STRATEGY: BehaviorModification
Only observable events andbehaviors are considered
Basic Concepts:
Eliciting stimulus
Positive reinforcer
Negative reinforcer
 Target behavior
Phases:1.Specify a Target Behavior
Identify the desiredbehavior
Precisely and explicitlydescribe the behavior
Determine how it canbest be observed andmeasured2.Establish a Baseline
Systematically observethe current behavior
Measure current behavioror competing behaviors
Assess antecedentconditions and reinforcingstimuli3.Design the Contingencies
Identify reinforcers (posor neg) that are appropriateto the target
Determine how oftenreinforcement will beprovided
Select other appropriateaspects of the intervention,such environmental
conditions, punishments,counterconditioning,desensitization, or modeling4.Institute the Program(Intervention)
Inform the learner of theconditions
Structure theenvironment for successwhere possible
Reinforce the desiredbehavior
Continue to measure andchart behavior5.Evaluate the Program
Compare interventionphase data to baseline data
Use reversal to check forinternalization of newbehavior
Withdraw reinforcement,but continue to monitorduring maintenance phase
Best Uses:
In children’s classrooms toteach socially desirablebehavior
 To deal with workplaceproblems as tardiness and poorwork habits
 To increase the use of a newmethod or procedure
By groups and individuals tomodify their own behaviors
By health-related areas forchanging behavior in adults(exercise, smoking cessation,alcohol/drug abstinence,weight-loss programs, stressreduction)
> STRATEGY: BehaviorModeling
Attempts to change behaviordirectly
Components:1.Prescribed CriticalSteps/Behaviors
Designer identifies criticalsteps/behaviors thatcompetent practitioners use
when they successfully carryout specific job tasks (canuse Critical Incident Technique)2.Credible Model
 The trainees are shown avideo model of the criticalsteps/behaviors being usedeffectively in a typical andrealistic problem situation3.Skill Practice Exercises
 Trainees repeatedlyrehearse and practice thecritical steps/behaviors inrealistic problem situations4.Specific Feedback and SocialReinforcement
As trainees are successful inusing the criticalsteps/behaviors, theinstructor facilitatesfeedback from their peersthat is specific and positivelyreinforcing5.Transfer Strategies
 Transfer to the workplace isgreatly enhanced byprogressively increasing thedifficulty and reality of theskill practice exercise6.On-the-job Reinforcement
 The supervisors of thetrainees are also trained inhow to use the same skills,how to coach trainees, andhow to reinforce theirsubordinates’ attempts touse the criticalsteps/behaviors
Best uses:
Most effective, robust methodcurrently known for trainingpeople in interpersonal or “soft”skills
Enables trainees to learn totransfer and adjust their skills tothe similar but differentsituation
Can be used for technicaltraining
When the following conditionsare present: an experiencedinstructor, a clear set of behavior skills to learn,repeated practice and feedback(social reinforcement) fromother trainees, and on-the-jobreinforcement by the trainees’managers
Cognitivism /Pragmatism

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