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02 Paper 22041036 IJCSIS Camera Ready Pp. 9-15

02 Paper 22041036 IJCSIS Camera Ready Pp. 9-15

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Automatic marker-less 3D human body modeling for the motion analysis in security systems has been an active research field in computer vision. This research work attempts to develop an approach for 3D human body modeling using thinning algorithm in monocular indoor video sequences for the activity analysis. Here, the thinning algorithm has been used to extract the skeleton of the human body for the pre-defined poses. This approach includes 13 feature points such as Head, Neck, Left shoulder, Right shoulder, Left hand elbow, Right hand elbow, Abdomen, Left hand, Right hand, Left knee, Right knee, Left leg and Right leg in the upper body as well as in the lower body. Here, eleven activities have been analyzed for different videos and persons who are wearing half sleeve and full sleeve shirts. We evaluate the time utilization and efficiency of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results validate both the likelihood and the effectiveness of the proposed method for the analysis of human activities.
Automatic marker-less 3D human body modeling for the motion analysis in security systems has been an active research field in computer vision. This research work attempts to develop an approach for 3D human body modeling using thinning algorithm in monocular indoor video sequences for the activity analysis. Here, the thinning algorithm has been used to extract the skeleton of the human body for the pre-defined poses. This approach includes 13 feature points such as Head, Neck, Left shoulder, Right shoulder, Left hand elbow, Right hand elbow, Abdomen, Left hand, Right hand, Left knee, Right knee, Left leg and Right leg in the upper body as well as in the lower body. Here, eleven activities have been analyzed for different videos and persons who are wearing half sleeve and full sleeve shirts. We evaluate the time utilization and efficiency of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results validate both the likelihood and the effectiveness of the proposed method for the analysis of human activities.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.2 May 2010
Marker-less 3D Human Body Modeling usingThinning algorithm in Monocular Video
*
K. Srinivasan
Department of EIESri Ramakrishna Engineering CollegeCoimbatore, Indiasrineekvasan@gmail.com* Corresponding author
K.Porkumaran
Department of EEEDr.N.G.P Institute of TechnologyCoimbatore, Indiaporkumaran@gmail.com
G.Sainarayanan
Head, R&DICT Academy of TamilnaduChennai, IndiaSai.jgk@gmail.com
 Abstract 
Automatic marker-less 3D human body modeling forthe motion analysis in security systems has been an activeresearch field in computer vision. This research work attempts todevelop an approach for 3D human body modeling usingthinning algorithm in monocular indoor video sequences for theactivity analysis. Here, the thinning algorithm has been used toextract the skeleton of the human body for the pre-defined poses.This approach includes 13 feature points such as Head, Neck,Left shoulder, Right shoulder, Left hand elbow, Right handelbow, Abdomen, Left hand, Right hand, Left knee, Right knee,Left leg and Right leg in the upper body as well as in the lowerbody. Here, eleven activities have been analyzed for differentvideos and persons who are wearing half sleeve and full sleeveshirts. We evaluate the time utilization and efficiency of ourproposed algorithm. Experimental results validate both thelikelihood and the effectiveness of the proposed method for theanalysis of human activities.
Keywords- Video surveillance, Background subtraction, Humanbody modeling, Thinning algorithm, Activity analysis.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 In recent years, human tracking, modeling and activityrecognition from videos [1]-[5] has gained much importancein human-computer interaction due to its applications insurveillance areas such as security systems, banks, railways,airports, supermarkets, homes, and departmental stores. Thepassive surveillance system needs more cameras to monitorthe areas by a single operator and it is inefficient for trackingand motion analysis of the people for better security. Theautomated video surveillance system uses single camera withsingle operator for the motion analysis and provides betterresults. Marker based human tracking and modeling is asimple way of approach but it is not possible to reconstruct allthe human poses in practical situations. This approach needsmarkers at every time of surveillance persons. So, the marker-less motion tracking and modeling have been very importantfor the motion analysis.In the human body modeling, there aretwo kinds of representation of modeling are available such as2D modeling and 3D modeling. Among the two types of human body modeling, 2D modeling is simple approach whichcan be used to model the complex nature of human bodywhereas 3D modeling is much more complex to track thepersons in video data. In this paper, 3D human body modelingbased activity analysis has been implemented with the help of thinning algorithm. The recovery of 3D human body poses is avery important in many video processing applications. A 3Dhuman body model is an interconnection of all body elementsin three dimensional views. Onishi K.et.al [6] describe a 3Dhuman body posture estimation using Histograms of OrientedGradient(HOG) feature vectors that can express the shape of the object in the input image obtained from the monocularcamera. A model based approach for estimating 3D humanbody poses in static images have been implemented by MunWai Lee, and Isaac Cohen [7]. They develop a Data-Drivenbased approach on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (DD-MCMC),where component detection results generate state proposals for3D pose estimation.Thinning is one of the important morphological operationsthat can be used to remove the selected foreground pixels fromthe images. Usually, the thinning operation has been applied tobinary images. In the previous work, the thinning algorithm ismostly attempted for several image processing applicationslike pattern recognition and character recognition [8]-[11].Now we apply this thinning algorithm to model the humanbody in 3D view and it can be used to find the motion analysisof human without using any markers on the body.This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 gives thebrief introduction about the problem. Section 2 deals theproposed work of activity analysis using 3D modeling. Theframe conversion algorithm and the background subtractionalgorithm are explained in section 3 and section 4. Section 5illustrates the morphological operation and the thinningalgorithm is described in section 6. Section 7 presents thehuman body feature points identification. Section 8 includesthe results and analysis of our proposed work. The conclusionand future work has been discussed in section 9. Theacknowledgements and references are included in the last partof the paper.II.
 
P
ROPOSED
W
ORK
 Human body modeling has been used in the analysis of human activities in the indoor as well as in the outdoorsurveillance environment. Model based motion analysisinvolves 2D and 3D human models representation [12]-[13].The features that are extracted from the human body are usefulto model the surveillance persons and it has been applied to
9http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.2 May 2010
recover the human body poses [14] and finding their activities.In the proposed work as in Figure 1, first the video sequence isacquired by the video camera from the indoor environmentand it is converted into frames for further processing. Due toillumination changes, camera noise and lighting conditions,there may be a chance of adding noise in the video data. Theseunwanted details have to be removed to get the enhancedvideo frame. The pre-processing stage helps to enhance thevideo frames. In all the processing here, the human body is ourdesired region of interest. The next aim is to obtain the humanbody from the video frame by eliminating the backgroundscene. So, the background is subtracted with the help of theframe differencing algorithm. Then, the video frames areapplied to morphological operation to remove details smallerthan a certain reference shape. After the morphologicaloperation, the thinning algorithm has been used to findskeleton of the human body. In this work, 13 features havebeen considered for a full body modeling and these featuresare Head, Neck, Left shoulder, Right shoulder, Left handelbow, Right hand elbow, Abdomen, Left hand, Right hand,Left knee, Right knee, Left leg and Right leg as in Figure 2.Initially, the five terminating points such as head, left hand,left leg, right leg, and right hand are determined. Then, theintersecting, shoulder, elbow, and knee points are obtainedusing image processing techniques. Finally, the 3D modelinghas been achieved for the activity analysis of human in videodata.
Figure 1. Proposed model of 3D modeling for activity analysisFigure 2. A human body model with thirteen feature points
III.
 
F
RAME
C
ONVERSION
A
LGORITHM
 In the first stage, the Video sequence is captured by thehigh resolution Nikon COOLPIX Digital Video Camerahaving 8.0 million effective pixels and 1/2.5-in.CCD imagesensor which produces NTSC and PAL video output. And ithas a focal length of 6.3-18.9mm (equivalent with 35mm[135] format picture angle: 38-114mm). The video sequence isbeing taken at a rate of 30 frames/ second from the indoorsurveillance environment for finding the human behaviour.After that, the video sequence has been converted intoindividual frames with the help of the algorithm given below.VIDEO TO FRAME CONVERSION ALGORITHMStep0: Acquisition of video sequence from the Video camerato MATLAB environment.Step1: Read the video file using ‘aviread’ function andstore it in a variable name.Step2: Assign the required frame as ‘jpg’.Step3: Determine the size of video file and number it.Step4: Then,for i=1: fnum,strtemp=strcat(int2str(i),'.',pickind);imwrite (mov(i).cdata(:,:,:),strtemp);endIV.
 
B
ACKGROUND
S
UBTRACTION
A
LGORITHM
 In the proposed work, the background subtractiontechnique plays an important role for subtracting foregroundimages from the background image and it is described inFigure 3. The frame differencing algorithm [15] has beenInput Video sequenceFrame conversionBackground subtractionMorphological operationThinning algorithmFind Terminating pointsFind Intersecting, Shoulder, Elbow, andKnee points3D modelingPerform Activity analysis
10http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.2 May 2010
proposed here to highlight the desired foreground scene and itis given below.FRAME DIFFERENCING ALGORITHMStep0: Read the Video data.Step1: Convert it into video frames.Step2: Set the background image.Step3: Separate R, G, B components individually foreasy computation.bc_r = bg(:,:,1);bc_g = bg(:,:,2); bc_b = bg(:,:,3);Step4: Read the current frame from the video sequence.Step5: Separate R, G, B components individually for thecomputation.cc_r = fr(:,:,1);cc_g = fr(:,:,2); cc_b = fr(:,:,3);Step6: Subtract the R, G, B components of the current framefrom the R, G, B components of background frame.Step7: Check the threshold values of colour components.
(a) (b) (c)Figure 3. Background subtraction using frame differencing algorithm(a) Input video frame, (b) Background subtracted image, and (c) Silhoutteeof human body
V.
 
M
ORPHOLOGICAL
O
PERATION
 Next, the proposed algorithm follows the morphologicaloperations which help to enhance the video frame for furtherprocesses. The morphological operations include dilation anderosion [16]. Finally, the noise has been removed usingmedian filtering. Dilation adds pixels to the boundaries of theobjects in an image. The number of pixels added or removedfrom the objects in an image depends on the size and shape of the structuring element. If F(j,k), for 1
 j,k 
N is a binaryvalued image and H(j,k), for 1
 j,k 
L, where L is an oddinteger, is a binary valued array called a structuring element,the dilation is expressed as in equation(1).G(j,k)=F(j,k)H(j,k)
(1)Erosion removes pixels on object boundaries. To erode animage,
imerode
function is used for our applications. Thedilation is expressed as in equation (2) where H(j,k) is an oddsize Lx L structuring element.G(j,k)=F(j,k)H(j,k)
(2)At the end of this stage, the median filtering has been usedto reduce the salt and pepper noise present in the frame. It issimilar to using an averaging filter, in that each output pixel isset to an average of the pixel values in the neighborhood of thecorresponding input pixel.VI.
 
T
HINNING
A
LGORITHM
 In this paper, thinning operation can be used to findskeleton of the entire human body. The thinning operation isperformed by transforming the origin of the structuringelement to each pixel in the image. Then it is compared withthe corresponding image pixels. When the background andforeground pixels of the structuring element and an image arematched, the origin of the structuring element is considered asbackground. Otherwise it is left unchanged. Here, thestructuring element determines the use of the thinningoperation. The thinning operation is achieved by the hit-and-miss transform. The thinning of an image A
 
by a structuringelement B is given by equation (3).thin(A,B)=A-hit and miss(A-B)(3)Mostly the thinning operation has been used forskeletonization to produce a connected skeleton in the humanbody. Figure.4 shows the structuring elements forskeletonization by morphological thinning. At each iteration,the image is first thinned by the left hand structuring element,and then by the right hand one, and then with the remainingsix
 
90° rotations of the two elements.
Figure 4. Examples of structuring element for thinning operation
The process is repeated in cyclic fashion until none of thethinnings produce any further change. Normally, the origin of the structuring element is at the center. The steps of thinningalgorithm include,Step0: Partitioning the video frame into two distinctsubfields in a checkerboard pattern.Step1: Delete the pixel
 p
from the first subfield if andonly if the conditions (4), (5), and (6) are satisfied.
H
X(p)=1
 
(4)
where
H
4X(p)=bii=11 if X2i-1 = 0 and ( x2i = 1 or x2i+1=1)bi=0 otherwise
 x1, x2,….x8 are the values of the eight neighbors of 
 p
, startingwith the east neighbor and numbered in counter-clockwiseorder.2minn(p),n(p) 312
(5)
11http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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