(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010
Watermark Embedding Process
The modulated watermark bits are inserted into the hostframes blocks, depending on the contrast of the block. Beforethe embedding process the host frame is decomposed inton
n blocks and the value of n is found as follows:(1)Where M, N and X, Y represent the dimensions of the hostimage and the watermark respectively. The process of embedding in each block is carried out according to thefollowing procedure.1-
Splitting the video into frames I, B, P2-
Calculate the mean, maximum and minimumvalues of the block.3-
Find the values in the block that are above andbelow the mean value.4-
Calculate the mean values of those below theblocks mean value and the mean values of thoseabove it.5-
Calculate the new pixels values V
accordingto the following:
Inserted bit 0If V< m
Inserted bit >0If V<m
< V < V
Where V is the original intensity, V
representmean, maximum and minimum values of the blocksrespectively. Whereas m
represent the meanvalues of the pixels above and below the mean value of theblock respectively.6-
Finally the original frame is replaced with theresulting watermarked frame.
According to the embedding procedure, the sum of pixelsin the watermarked block is larger than that of the originalframe if the embedded bit is 1.On the other hand, if the embedded bit is 0, than the sumof pixels in the watermarked block is smaller than that of theoriginal frame. Hence, the original and the watermarkedframes are used in the extraction process. Both of the framesare divided into the same blocks, which are used for theembedding process.The sum of pixels for each corresponding block iscomputed, and if the sum of the original frame block pixelsis greater than that of the watermarked frame, the extractedbit is considered to be 0, otherwise it is considered to be 1.The extracted bits are then processed by XOR, with thesame pseudo-random sequence used for embedding toproduce the extracted watermark.
Watermarking Robust Against Frame Dropping
The effect of cropping and downscaling is similar foreach frame, whereas the frame dropping is unequal on lesssignificant frames from the scenes of the video. For theembedded watermark to be robust against frame dropping, aproposed method has been illustrated in Figure. (3), wherethe original video is segmented into scenes, then the digitalwatermark is divided into a number of blocks according tothe number of scenes. The goal of dividing the watermark isfor embedding each block of watermark into its local scene(for more details Figure (4) and Figure (5) illustrate theembedding and extracting operations). Combining thetechnique mentioned in Section 3 will make the watermark robust against cropping, downscaling, rotation and framedropping.
Figure 3. block diagram of proposed method for frame dropping
As shown in figure 5.7 the steps of embedding watermark against frame dropping as follow:
Read watermark logo (modulated watermark).
Segment watermark data into no of blocksaccording to the number of scenes.
Embedded block no 1in the frames of the scene no1.
Embedded block no 2 in the frames of scene no 2
Still embedded each block of watermark into itslocal scene.