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Robust Video Watermarking Algorithm Using Spatial Domain Against Geometric Attacks

Robust Video Watermarking Algorithm Using Spatial Domain Against Geometric Attacks

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Published by ijcsis
it is important for Digital watermarking to have digital data and multimedia, such as video, music, text, and image copyright protection because of network and multimedia techniques that easily copy. One of the significant problems in video watermarking is the Geometric attacks. In this paper new robust watermarking algorithm has been proposed, based on spatial domain which is robust against geometric attacks such as downscaling, cropping, rotation, and frame dropping. Besides, the embedded data rate is high and robust. The experimental results show that the embedded watermark is robust and invisible. The watermark was successfully extracted from the video after various attacks.
it is important for Digital watermarking to have digital data and multimedia, such as video, music, text, and image copyright protection because of network and multimedia techniques that easily copy. One of the significant problems in video watermarking is the Geometric attacks. In this paper new robust watermarking algorithm has been proposed, based on spatial domain which is robust against geometric attacks such as downscaling, cropping, rotation, and frame dropping. Besides, the embedded data rate is high and robust. The experimental results show that the embedded watermark is robust and invisible. The watermark was successfully extracted from the video after various attacks.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 12, 2010
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010
Robust Video Watermarking Algorithm Using SpatialDomain Against Geometric Attacks
Sadik Ali. M. Al-Taweel
1
, Putra. Sumari
2
, Saleh Ali K. Alomari
1,2
 
1, 2
School of Computer Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia11800 Penang, Malaysiasadiq_altaweel@yahoo.com, putras@cs.usm.my, salehalomari2005@yahoo.com 
 Abstract
 — 
 
it is important for Digital watermarking to havedigital data and multimedia, such as video, music, text, andimage copyright protection because of network and multimediatechniques that easily copy. One of the significant problems invideo watermarking is the Geometric attacks. In this papernew robust watermarking algorithm has been proposed, basedon spatial domain which is robust against geometric attackssuch as downscaling, cropping, rotation, and frame dropping.Besides, the embedded data rate is high and robust. Theexperimental results show that the embedded watermark isrobust and invisible. The watermark was successfully extractedfrom the video after various attacks.
 Keywords-Video watermarking, geometric attacks, copyright protection.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Digital watermarking has recently become a popular areaof research due to the proliferation of digital data (image,audio, or video) in the Internet and the necessity to find away to protect the copyright of these materials. Visiblewatermarks are visual patterns like logos, which are insertedinto the digital data. Most watermarking systems involvemarking imperceptible alteration on the cover data to conveythe hidden information. This is called the invisiblewatermarks. Digital watermarks, on the other hand, are foundwith the advancement of the Internet and the ambiguity of digital data. Thus, it is natural to extend the idea of watermarking into the digital data. Recently, numerousdigital watermarking algorithms have been developed to helpprotect the copyright of digital images and to verify themultimedia data integrity [1]. In spite of the existence of watermarking technique(s) for all kinds of digital data, mostof the literatures address the watermarking of the still imagesfor copyright protection and only some are extended to thetemporal domain for the video watermarking [2],[ 3].In this paper, we propose an oblivious video watermarkingtechnique based on the spatial domain which is robustagainst geometric attacks, Besides, the embedded data rate ishigh and robust. This paper is organized as follows: Section2 describes the related work; section 3 describes theproposed algorithm. Section 4 describes the performanceevaluation.II.
 
R
ELATED WORK
 Some of the video watermarking techniques targetinggeometric attacks are on raw videos [4], [5]. Hartung andGirod proposed algorithm for uncompressed and compressedvideo watermarking, based on the idea of spreading thewatermark energy over all of the pixels in each of the frames.The bit rate of the watermark is low, and it is not robust toframe loss [6].Numerous video watermarking approaches suggested variousways of handling geometric attacks and they can beclassified into several categories: invariant watermark [7], [8]synchronization [9], and autocorrelation [10].Invariant watermarking embeds the watermark in ageometric-invariant transform, such as a log-polar wavelettransform, eliminating the need to identify and reverse thespecific geometric attacks, such as rotation, and scaling.These kinds of techniques are very weak against a slightgeometric distortion, such as small-angle rotation and near-one scaling. Moreover, the computational cost is too high toobtain the invariant domain from the varied transform.The synchronization is the exhaustive search which entailsinversion of a large number of possible attacks and testingfor a watermark after each one. Since the number of possibleattacks increases, the positive probability and computationalcost become unacceptable.The autocorrelation technique is similar to thesynchronization approach. It spreads lots of extra data, inaddition to the real watermark information to obtainsynchronization for the watermark detection byautocorrelation, which either further distorts the host mediaor sacrifices the watermark payload.Chan et al, presented a novel DWT-based videowatermarking scheme with scrambled watermark and errorcorrecting code [11]. The scheme is robust against attackssuch as frame dropping, frame averaging, and statisticalanalysis. Campisi et al proposed the perceptual mask,applied in the 3D DWT domain and robust against MPEG2and MPEG-4 compression, collusion and transcoding attacks[12].Elbasi proposed a robust mpeg video watermarking inwavelet domain which is embedded in two bands (LL and
51http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010
HH) and chosen attacks, JPEG compression, resizing, addingGaussian noise and low pass filtering [13].Anqiang presented adaptive watermarking scheme based onthe error correction code and Human Visual System (HVS)in 3D-DWT domain. The proposed method is to resist thesignal processing attacks, Gaussian noise, and framedropping [14].Xu Da-Wen proposed a method based on the 3D wavelettransforms. In this method, the original video frames aredivided into 3D-blocks according to the HVS properties. Theproposed method is robust against lossy compression; frameswapping, frame dropping and median filtering [15].Al-Taweel and Sumari proposed video watermarkingtechnique based on the DWT based on the spread spectrumcommunication. The proposed method is robust againstJPEG compression, geometric attacks such as Downscaling,Cropping, and Rotation, as well as noising [16].Al-Taweel and Sumari proposed video watermarkingtechnique based on the discrete cosine transform domainbased on the spread spectrum communication. The proposedmethod is robust against JPEG compression, geometricattacks such as downscaling, cropping, and Rotation, as wellas noising such as guaussian noise and salt & pepper noise[17].Al-Taweel and Sumari proposed a novel DWT-based videowatermarking algorithm is proposed based on a three-levelDWT using Haar filter which is robust against geometricdistortions such as Downscaling, Cropping, and Rotation. Itis also robust against Image processing attacks such as lowpass filtering (LPF), Median filtering, and Weiner filtering.Furthermore, the algorithm is robust against Noise attackssuch as Gaussian noise, Salt and Pepper attacks [18].Essaouabi and Ibnelhaj presented video watermarkingalgorithm in the three-dimensional wavelet transform. Theproposed algorithm is robust against the attacks of framedropping, averaging and swapping [19].The main significance of our technique is that it attempts torealize a good compromise between robustness performance,quality of the embedding and computational cost.III.
 
T
HE
P
ROPOSED
A
LGORITHM
 In order to meet the requirements of invisibility androbustness, an algorithm has been proposed that adaptivelymodifies the intensities of the host frames pixels, in such amanner that it is unnoticeable to human eyes. The proposedalgorithm divides the host frame into a predefined number of blocks; it also modifies the intensities of the pixelsdepending on the contents of the blocks. For securityrequirements, private keys have also been used in thisalgorithm.In this section, the overview of proposed watermarkingscheme is shown in figure (1). The scheme is composed of four main components: watermark modulation, watermark embedding, frame dropping, and finally watermark extraction.
Figure 1. Model of watermarking algorithm
More details about these four main steps can be found in thenext sections.
 A.
 
Watermark Modulation
The watermark L= [11,12,….,1N] with li
{0,1}, is a bitsequence of length N, which may be a meaningful image,like a logo of images of an owner.The watermark is modulated by a bit-wise logical XORoperation, that contains a pseudo-random bit sequence s =
[s1, s2, …., sN] with si
{0,1} which is than multiplied byanother pseudo-number sequence (0,1) to provide themodulated watermark sequence W = [w1, w
2, …, w
N], asshown in Figure (2).The seed values of the two pseudo-random numbergenerators are regarded as the two private keys for theproposed algorithm.
Figure 2. Modulation of the watermark 
Watermar
 ModulationWatermarkembeddingFrame DroppingWatermarkExtraction
Pseudo-randomNumber (0, 1)
 
Watermark
 
XOR
 
Pseudo-randomBit sequence
 
X
 
Modulatedwatermark
 
52http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010
 B.
 
Watermark Embedding Process
The modulated watermark bits are inserted into the hostframes blocks, depending on the contrast of the block. Beforethe embedding process the host frame is decomposed inton
×
n blocks and the value of n is found as follows:(1)Where M, N and X, Y represent the dimensions of the hostimage and the watermark respectively. The process of embedding in each block is carried out according to thefollowing procedure.1-
 
Splitting the video into frames I, B, P2-
 
Calculate the mean, maximum and minimumvalues of the block.3-
 
Find the values in the block that are above andbelow the mean value.4-
 
Calculate the mean values of those below theblocks mean value and the mean values of thoseabove it.5-
 
Calculate the new pixels values V
`
accordingto the following:
 
Inserted bit 0If V< m
low
thenV
=V
min
 ElseIf V
mean
<V<m
high
thenV
=
V
mean
 ElseV
=
V-
a
 
 
Inserted bit >0If V<m
high
then
V’=V
max
 ElseIf m
low
< V < V
mean
thenV
=
V
mean
 ElseV
=
V+
a
 Where V is the original intensity, V
mean
,
Vmax,
V
min
representmean, maximum and minimum values of the blocksrespectively. Whereas m
low
and m
high
represent the meanvalues of the pixels above and below the mean value of theblock respectively.6-
 
Finally the original frame is replaced with theresulting watermarked frame.
C.
 
Watermark Extraction
 
According to the embedding procedure, the sum of pixelsin the watermarked block is larger than that of the originalframe if the embedded bit is 1.On the other hand, if the embedded bit is 0, than the sumof pixels in the watermarked block is smaller than that of theoriginal frame. Hence, the original and the watermarkedframes are used in the extraction process. Both of the framesare divided into the same blocks, which are used for theembedding process.The sum of pixels for each corresponding block iscomputed, and if the sum of the original frame block pixelsis greater than that of the watermarked frame, the extractedbit is considered to be 0, otherwise it is considered to be 1.The extracted bits are then processed by XOR, with thesame pseudo-random sequence used for embedding toproduce the extracted watermark.
 D.
 
Watermarking Robust Against Frame Dropping
The effect of cropping and downscaling is similar foreach frame, whereas the frame dropping is unequal on lesssignificant frames from the scenes of the video. For theembedded watermark to be robust against frame dropping, aproposed method has been illustrated in Figure. (3), wherethe original video is segmented into scenes, then the digitalwatermark is divided into a number of blocks according tothe number of scenes. The goal of dividing the watermark isfor embedding each block of watermark into its local scene(for more details Figure (4) and Figure (5) illustrate theembedding and extracting operations). Combining thetechnique mentioned in Section 3 will make the watermark robust against cropping, downscaling, rotation and framedropping.
Figure 3. block diagram of proposed method for frame dropping
 
1)
 
 Embedding Watermark 
 
As shown in figure 5.7 the steps of embedding watermark against frame dropping as follow:
a)
 
Read watermark logo (modulated watermark).
b)
 
Segment watermark data into no of blocksaccording to the number of scenes.
c)
 
Embedded block no 1in the frames of the scene no1.
d)
 
Embedded block no 2 in the frames of scene no 2
e)
 
Still embedded each block of watermark into itslocal scene.
53http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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