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An Energy Efficient Reliable Multipath Routing Protocol for Data Gathering In Wireless Sensor Networks

An Energy Efficient Reliable Multipath Routing Protocol for Data Gathering In Wireless Sensor Networks

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Published by ijcsis
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the protocols that are accessible today have their own set of problems and most of them deal with energy efficiency. There is no specific work done on high network traffic or contention issue and significant work is remaining related to robustness and reliability. An important topic addressed by the wireless sensor networks community has been in-network data aggregation, because of the severe energy constraints of sensor nodes and the limited transport capacity of multihop wireless networks. In this paper, we propose to design an energy efficient reliable multipath routing protocol for data gathering in wireless sensor networks. This protocol is intended to provide a reliable transmission environment with low energy consumption, by efficiently utilizing the energy availability of the forwarding nodes to gather and distribute the data to sink, according to its requirements. By simulation results, we show that our proposed algorithm attains good packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption and delay
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the protocols that are accessible today have their own set of problems and most of them deal with energy efficiency. There is no specific work done on high network traffic or contention issue and significant work is remaining related to robustness and reliability. An important topic addressed by the wireless sensor networks community has been in-network data aggregation, because of the severe energy constraints of sensor nodes and the limited transport capacity of multihop wireless networks. In this paper, we propose to design an energy efficient reliable multipath routing protocol for data gathering in wireless sensor networks. This protocol is intended to provide a reliable transmission environment with low energy consumption, by efficiently utilizing the energy availability of the forwarding nodes to gather and distribute the data to sink, according to its requirements. By simulation results, we show that our proposed algorithm attains good packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption and delay

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An Energy Efficient Reliable Multipath RoutingProtocol for Data Gathering In Wireless SensorNetworks
U.B. Mahadevaswamy
Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics andcommunicationSri Jayachamarajendra college of EngineeringMysore, Karnataka, India.mahadevaswamyphd@gmail.com
 
ubms_sjce@yahoo.co.in
 
M.N.Shanmukhaswamy
ProfessorDepartment of Electronics and communicationSri Jayachamarajendra college of Engineering,Mysore, Karnataka, India.mnsjce@gmail.com.
 
 Abstract
—In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the protocols thatare accessible today have their own set of problems and most of them deal with energy efficiency. There is no specific work doneon high network traffic or contention issue and significant workis remaining related to robustness and reliability. An importanttopic addressed by the wireless sensor networks community hasbeen in-network data aggregation, because of the severe energyconstraints of sensor nodes and the limited transport capacity of multihop wireless networks. In this paper, we propose to designan energy efficient reliable multipath routing protocol for datagathering in wireless sensor networks. This protocol is intendedto provide a reliable transmission environment with low energyconsumption, by efficiently utilizing the energy availability of theforwarding nodes to gather and distribute the data to sink,according to its requirements. By simulation results, we showthat our proposed algorithm attains good packet delivery ratiowith reduced energy consumption and delay
 Keywords- WSN, Multipath Routing Protocol, contention issue, sensor nodes, energy consumption, sink, Periodic Interest Propagation.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Sensor nodes are those that have made the use of small,inexpensive, low-power, distributed devices, which arecapable of local processing and wireless communication, acertainty in recent technological improvements [1]. Only arestricted amount of processing can be done by each sensornode. They have the ability to measure a given physicalenvironment in vast detail, when coordinated with theinformation from a large number of other nodes. Thus, asensor network can be defined as a collection of sensor nodesthat co-ordinate to perform some specific task. The sensornetworks depend on dense deployment and co- ordination tocarry out their tasks in contrast to traditional networks. Theyhave got a range of applications, which includesenvironmental monitoring – that involves monitoring air soiland water, condition based maintenance, habitat monitoring ,seismic detection, military surveillance, inventory tracking,smart spaces etc. [1].Due to recent advances in wireless sensor networks manynew protocols were designed specifically for sensor networksfor energy awareness. Since the routing protocol may varydepending on the application and network architecture, mostof the attention has been given to them [2].Data gathering is a common function of sensor networks inwhich the information is collected at sensor nodes andtransported to central base stations for further processing andanalysis. An important topic addressed by the wireless sensornetworks community has been in-network data aggregation,because of the severe energy constraints of sensor nodes andthe limited transport capacity of multihop wireless networks.To reduce expensive data transmission, sensor data has to bepre-processed in the network by the sensor nodes capable withcomputational power. Neglecting the characteristics of wireless transmission, most of the existing work on correlateddata gathering completely assumes routing techniques similarto those in wire line networks [4].The protocols that are accessible today have their own setof problems and most of them deal with energy efficiency. Forhigh network traffic or contention issues, there is no work done. Significant work is remaining related to robustness andscalability. QoS routing have several applications includingreal time target tracking in battle environments, emergentevent triggering in monitoring applications etc in sensornetworks. At present, in an energy controlled environment likesensor networks, there is very little research that looks atmanaging QoS requirements.To describe the class of routing mechanisms that let theestablishment of multiple paths between source anddestination, the term multipath routing has been used in theliterature. For two reasons standard multipath routing has beenexplored. First the multi path routing is used in load balancingin which the traffic between a source-destination pair is splitacross multiple disjoint paths. Second use of multipath routingis to increase the chance of reliable data delivery. In theseapproaches, several copies of data are sent along diverse paths,to resist against failure of a certain number of paths [5].
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 201059http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
In this paper, we propose to design an energy efficientreliable multipath routing algorithm for data gathering inwireless sensor networks. This protocol is intended to providea reliable transmission environment with low energyconsumption, by efficiently utilizing the energy availability of the forwarding nodes to gather and distribute the data to sink,according to its requirements.II.
 
R
ELATED
W
ORK
 Deepak Ganesan et al [5] have proposed a highly resilient;energy-efficient multipath routing protocol. It mainlydiscusses energy efficient recovery from failures, bydiscovering alternate paths. But it fails to consider the QoSqualities of the routes, when constructing multiple paths.R Vidhyapriya et al [6], have developed an adaptivemultipath routing protocol which spreads the traffic over thenodes lying on different possible paths between the source andthe sink, in proportion to their residual energy and receivedsignal strength. But it transmits all the packets across the multipaths, without considering the category of data.Weifa Liang et al [7], have proposed a maximum network lifetime routing (MNL) algorithm to maximize the network lifetime while gathering online queries. In this protocol, thesink constructs a tree towards the source node, based on theresidual energies of the nodes. But it does not consider thereliability of the transmitted data, since there will be largevolumes of data involved, when there are continuous queriesat the sink.Ye Ming Lu et al [8], have proposed an energy efficientmultipath routing algorithm which uses a load balancingalgorithm to distribute the traffic over multiple disjoint paths.For energy efficiency, it uses the residual energy in the link cost function. But it does not consider aggregating similar dataalong multiple paths.Yuzhe Liu et al [9], have proposed a priority basedmultipath routing protocol. It forwards the disseminated databased on the priority information accumulated hop count orremaining power resource. It uses either shortest path orenergy-efficient path based on the priority tag. But thisprotocol does not consider the category of data and nature of queries.Antoine B. Bagula et al [10], have proposed an energyconstrained multipath routing. It minimizes the number of paths used in forwarding the data to the sink, there byminimizing the energy. But it does not discuss the sink’sinterest and reliability of data.Octav Chipara et al [11], have proposed a real-time poweraware routing (RPAR) protocol. It addresses importantpractical issues in wireless sensor networks, including lossylinks, scalability, and severe memory and bandwidthconstraints.III.
 
E
NERGY
E
FFICIENT
R
ELIABLE
M
ULTIPATH
R
OUTING
P
ROTOCOL
 
 A. Protocol Overview
In this paper, we propose an energy efficient reliablemultipath routing algorithm for data gathering in wirelesssensor networks. It consists of three phases:1.
 
Periodic Interest Propagation by the sink 2.
 
Energy Efficient Multipah Tree Construction3.
 
Packet DispersionIn the first phase, the sink periodically broadcast aninterest message containing its required data model, to all thenodes. In the second phase, we construct a multi path tree, inwhich nodes are selected based on their residual energy level.In the third phase, data sources of similar interests aregathered and transmitted towards the sink across the energy-efficient tree. When data sources cannot be aggregated, theyare dispersed along multiple paths using erasure codingtechnique [11].
 B. Periodic Interest Propagation by the Sink 
A sink generates an interest message that identifies itsrequirement in wireless sensor networks which is thenpropagated throughout the network. On receiving an interestmessage, the source transmits the corresponding data. The datapackets having similar interests are collected and aggregated atintermediate aggregators. The sink does not have anyinformation on the availability of data while transmitting thefirst interest message. So the sink simply broadcasts interestmessage to all its neighbors. Interest message contains theInterest Id, Description and Timestamp. The features of shortest path algorithm can be used for interest messagepropagation.An interest table is maintained by each node whichcontains the fields Interest Id, Sender Id, Cost of the messagein terms of hop count and Timestamp. On receiving an interestmessage the node will look up in its interest for the receivedinterest message. An interest table makes only one entry perdata type from a particular sink.When a node delivers the first interest message, it is addedin the interest table with its parameters. The interest messageis then rebroadcast to other nodes. It checks the interest table,if a duplicate interest message is received by a node. Theduplicate message is dropped when the cost of it is higher thanthe cost of the earlier message; else it is updated in the tableand then forwarded to the next node.The proposed protocol consists of a periodic interestpropagation phase. Since the interest is a soft state, it is veryoften refreshed by the sink. Refreshing is essential since it isimpossible to transmit interest reliably across the network andthe refresh rate is a protocol design parameter. To propagatethe interest based on the previously cached data, eitherflooding or directional propagation may be used.
C. Energy Efficient Multipath Tree Construction
We propose a heuristic algorithm for the tree construction.We consider the wireless sensor network M as a directedgraph G (N, E). Let the set of nodes N consisting of sensors
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 201060http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
and (a, b)
E if a and b are residing inside the transmissionrange of each other. The fundamental idea of the proposedalgorithm is, when a data gathering request is arrived, thenusing the greedy algorithm a data gathering tree for the requestis constructed. The greedy algorithm maximizes the minimumresidual energy among the nodes. Then the nodes are includedin the tree one by one but in beginning only the sink node isincluded. A node b is selected to be included into the tree if causes to maximize the minimum residual energy among thetrees including it.In our algorithm, we use the following notations
 
N is the total number of nodes
 
N
T
is the set of nodes in the tree,
 
stop is a Boolean variable,
 
newnode is the node that will be added to the tree.
 
q is the size of the sensed data by newnode.
 
w
α
a,b
is the weight assigned to the edge.
 
R is the set of nodes that are not in the tree.
 
RE is the residual energy.
 
s is the sink node
 
mre
max
is the maximum value of minimum residualenergy at each node of the tree.
 
tp is the temporary parent node.
 
P
a,s
is the unique path in T from node a to node s
 
p(a) is the parent of a in T
 
Let node v
N - N
T
be the considered node.
1) Tree Construction Algorithm
Algorithm: 1
1. }{
s N 
=
 2.""
 falsestop
=
 
3.
 N  N  R
=
 4.
=
)(
s RE 
 
5. 0
max
=
mre
 6. Rieach
For 
 6.1 tpand)(mre
max
iCompute
 6.2. then,)(mre
maxmax
mrei If 
>
 6.2.1. )(
maxmax
imremre
=
 6.2.2.
i Newnode
=
 6.3
if  End 
 7. for
 End 
 8 then,0mre
max
>
 If 
 8.1.)()(
newnodetpnewnodeP
=
 8.2.
doFor 
 snewnode,
P jeach
 8.2.1.
α 
)(,
)()(
 j p j
qw j RE  j RE 
=
 
8.3for
 End 
 8.4. }{
newnode N  N 
=
 8.5
newnode R R
=
 9
 Else
 9.1""
Truestop
=
 10.
if  End 
 11. thenfalse""stopor)(
=
φ 
 R If 
 11.15from 
repeat 
 12
if  End 
 13 End
 D. Packet Dispersion
The simplified message manipulation and the reliable datatransmission are the advantages of using the dispersionalgorithm [12] and erasure code [13].We propose a new packet dispersion mechanism whichsplits the data packets at the source into fragments anddistributes them on the multiple parallel paths, in order toreduce the packet loss. The packets are reassembled at thedestination. Based on robin dispersal algorithm, we have toutilize an erasure code technique in order to make thismechanism efficient [14].The source node breaks up the packet into N fragments of size s, generates K fragments of parity and transmits the totalof N+K packets to the destination. The destination mustreceive at least N fragments within T
m
time units in order tomake the transmission to be successful.Through the stronger paths the important fragments can besent between the replicated fragments. If any unexpected faulttakes place then the appropriate stronger paths can be chosenfrom the list.IV.
 
O
VERALL
A
LGORITHM
 The following algorithm summarizes the overall process of our proposed approach.n2....n1,
 Let 
be the
 N 
sensor nodes)2,1(
nn Let 
be the distance between the nodes 1
n
and2
n
.
Algorithm: 2
1. Sink periodically broadcasts the interest message.2. Nodes receive the interest message.3. It checks whether it is present already in its table.3.1 If not exist, then3.1.1 Add into its table3.2 Else3.2.1 Rebroadcast to its neighbors.3.3 End if 4. Suppose if a query arrives, an energy efficient tree isconstructed using algorithm 1.5. Each node checks its interest table which matches the query.6. The matched data is sent to its downstream nodes.7. If 
 Dnn
 ji
<
),(, where
i
n
and
 j
n
are two sensors withmatching data, then. 7.1 The matched data is gathered from all thecorresponding nodes and sent to thesink via the tree.8. Else
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 201061http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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